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Table 2 Excess pneumonia and influenza mortality rate associated with influenza subtypes/lineages using different influenza proxies in Shanghai general population, 2010–2015

From: Excess pneumonia and influenza mortality attributable to seasonal influenza in subtropical Shanghai, China

   Excess P&I mortality rate per 100,000 population
Lag 0 Lag 1 Lag 2
ER 95% CI ER 95% CI ER 95% CI
Proxy: positive number
  A (H1N1) 0.10 (0.06, 0.15) 0.12 (0.07, 0.16) 0.10 (0.06, 0.15)
  A (H3N2) 0.05 (−0.02, 0.11) 0.10 (0.04, 0.17) 0.12 (0.05, 0.18)
  B (Victoria) −0.05 (−0.12, 0.02) −0.05 (−0.12, 0.02) −0.04 (−0.11, 0.03)
  B (Yamagata) 0.04 (−0.02, 0.09) 0.06 (0.01, 0.11) 0.09 (0.04, 0.14)
  Influenza 0.14 (−0.01, 0.27) 0.22 (0.10, 0.34) 0.26 (0.14, 0.37)
Proxy: positive proportion
  A (H1N1) 0.14 (0.08, 0.19) 0.14 (0.09, 0.19) 0.12 (0.07, 0.17)
  A (H3N2) 0.07 (−0.01, 0.16) 0.12 (0.04, 0.20) 0.14 (0.07, 0.22)
  B (Victoria) −0.01 (−0.10, 0.06) −0.03 (−0.10, 0.05) −0.05 (−0.13, 0.02)
  B (Yamagata) 0.07 (0.01, 0.15) 0.08 (0.01, 0.14) 0.11 (0.05, 0.17)
  Influenza 0.26 (0.08, 0.43) 0.30 (0.14, 0.45) 0.31 (0.17, 0.44)
Proxy: LAB × ILI
  A (H1N1) 0.10 (0.06, 0.14) 0.09 (0.05, 0.12) 0.08 (0.04, 0.11)
  A (H3N2) 0.07 (0.01, 0.13) 0.11 (0.05, 0.17) 0.12 (0.06, 0.18)
  B (Victoria) −0.03 (−0.09, 0.04) −0.04 (−0.10, 0.02) −0.07 (−0.13, −0.01)
  B (Yamagata) 0.07 (0.01, 0.12) 0.07 (0.02, 0.13) 0.09 (0.04, 0.14)
  Influenza 0.21 (0.09, 0.32) 0.23 (0.11, 0.33) 0.22 (0.11, 0.32)
  1. P&I pneumonia and influenza, ER Excess rate, LAB × ILI product of weekly proportion of specimens tested positive for influenza and influenza-like illness consultation rate, CI confidence interval