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Table 3 Viral and bacterial infection status among pneumonia patients by comorbidity status

From: The impact of virus infections on pneumonia mortality is complex in adults: a prospective multicentre observational study

  No comorbidities Chronic respiratory disease Other comorbiditiesa P value†
Viruses N = 574 N = 790 N = 1253  
HRV 57 (9.9) 87 (11.0) 112 (8.9) 0.304
Inf A 21 (3.7) 29 (3.7) 51 (4.1) 0.866
RSV 12 (2.1) 37 (4.7) 52 (4.2) 0.037
PIV 3 12 (2.1) 11 (1.4) 26 (2.1) 0.492
HMPV 6 (1.1) 13 (1.7) 26 (2.1) 0.286
PIV 1 4 (0.7) 10 (1.3) 12 (1.0) 0.598
Inf B 5 (0.9) 5 (0.6) 14 (1.1) 0.596
PIV 2 3 (0.5) 4 (0.5) 7 (0.6) 1.000
HCoV (229E/OC43) 3 (0.5) 5 (0.6) 5 (0.4) 0.767
HAdV 2 (0.4) 1 (0.1) 3 (0.2) 0.764
HBoV 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.2) 0.711
PIV 4 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) NA
Any viruses 118 (20.6) 196 (24.8) 291 (23.2) 0.183
≥2 viruses 7 (1.2) 6 (0.8) 18 (1.4) 0.386
Any bacterial pathogens 233 (40.6) 315 (39.9) 444 (35.4) 0.043
Viral-bacterial co-infection 54 (9.4) 88 (11.1) 104 (8.3) 0.101
Any viral and bacterial pathogens 297 (51.7) 423 (53.5) 631 (50.4) 0.373
  1. HRV human rhinovirus, InfA influenza A virus, RSV respiratory syncytial virus, PIV1–4 human parainfluenza virus type 1–4, HMPV human metapneumovirus, InfB influenza B virus, HCoV human coronavirus (229E/OC43), HAdV human adenovirus, HBoV human bocavirus
  2. † Chi-square tests or Fisher’s exact tests were performed to compare the three groups
  3. aOther comorbidities include diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, neuromuscular disease, cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, collagen disease, malignancy, renal disease, and liver disease