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Table 2 Characteristics of sampling, culture and serotyping techniques

From: Prevalence and serotype distribution of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in China: a meta-analysis

Author Type of swabs Immediately incubated into plates or not Transportation period Culture plates Culture into the 5% CO2 Identification methods Serotyping methods Storage medium
Guoling Ping [11] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Latex agglutination N/A Skim milk powder
Yakun Liu [12] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Yan Kang [13] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Liping Zhang [14] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Latex agglutination N/A N/A
Hongmei Yang [15] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes PCR N/A Skim milk powder
Fan Yang [16] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung Sheep and broth
Yali Liu [17] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung Skim milk powder
Hao Li [18] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Latex agglutination N/A Glycerol broth
Xiyuan Zhao [19] NP Yes 0.5 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Ancun Hou [20] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Jun Liu [21] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Fuqin Li [22] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Jianping Liang [23] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Mingzhi Di [24] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Latex agglutination N/A N/A
Yongming He [25] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Latex agglutination N/A Skim milk powder
Chunzhen Hua [26] NP Nutrition broth then subculture 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Latex agglutination N/A N/A
Sangjie Yu [27] NP Nutrition broth then subculture 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung N/A
Ziyong Sun [28] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung N/A
Hong Zhou [29] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A Skim milk powder
Lihua Zhang [30] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Latex agglutination N/A N/A
Hui Wang [31] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung Skim milk powder
Hui Chen [32] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Jing Zhang [33] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung N/A
Aiying Bai [34] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Zhipeng Gao [35] NP Yes N/A 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Benquan Wu [36] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Lihua Jiang [37] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Zhigang Lai [38] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Latex agglutination N/A N/A
Defeng Zhao [39] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung N/A
Youqun Zeng [40] NP Yes N/A 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
NY Lee [41] nasal Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung N/A
Jiayu Hu [42] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility Quellung N/A
Xiaoming Luo [43] NP Yes N/A TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Yanhui Liu [44] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Latex agglutination N/A Skim milk powder
Yanjie Liu [45] NP Yes 4 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Xinghua Cao [46] NP Yes 4 h 5% sheep blood agar Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
Dongke Chen [47] NP Yes 0.5 h TSA + 5% sheep blood + 5 μg/ml gentamicin Yes Optochin disk +bile solubility N/A N/A
  1. NP nasopharyngel swab, TSA Trypticase soy agar, N/A not mentioned or not acquired