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Table 2 Seminal HPV prevalence by region, specimen type, and detection method

From: Human papillomavirus in semen and the risk for male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  General Population Fertility Clinic Attendees
No. of studies No. of HPV positive HPV DNA prevalence
(%) (95%CIa)
No. of studies No. of HPV positive HPV DNA prevalence
(%) (95%CIa)
Region
 Europe 10 149 15.2 (8.3-22.1) 10 285 17.9 (13.0-22.7)
 Asia 2 39 9.2 (0.3-18.0) 5 157 22.0 (11.4-32.5)
 North America 3 33 4.5 (2.9-6.0) 2 23 19.3 (0.0-49.8)
 Africa 0 1 18 28.6 (17.4-39.7)
 Ocean 0 1 5 29.4 (7.8-51.1)
 Latin America 0 1 29 38.2 (27.2-49.1)
Specimen type
 Non-centrifuged semen 9 133 12.4 (6.7-18.0) 7 205 20.8 (13.1-28.5)
 Centrifuged semen 6 88 10.9 (5.4-16.3) 11 278 18.0 (12.8-23.3)
 Unclear 0 2 34 36.4 (26.6-46.1)
Detection method
 Consensus primers 13 215 11.0 (7.3-14.7) 14 397 18.7 (14.2-23.1)
 Type-specific primers 2 6 19.0 (5.2-32.8) 5 78 27.4 (8.5-46.2)
 Others 0 1 42 18.6 (13.5-23.7)
  1. a Abbreviations: CI confidence interval