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Table 2 Factors associated with end of MDR-TB treatment outcomes in Brazil, univariate analysis

From: Treatment outcomes of MDR-tuberculosis patients in Brazil: a retrospective cohort analysis

  Odds of treatment success (cure/completed) vs. failure/relapse
N = 1358
Odds of treatment success (cure/completed) vs. failure/relapse/death
N = 1569
Odds of treatment success (cure/completed) vs. failure/death/loss to follow-up
N = 1972
  Success (%) OR (95% CI) Success (%) OR (95% CI) Success (%) OR (95% CI)
Regimen
 Standardized 922 (89%) 2.8 (2.0; 3.8) 922 (77%) 1.7 (1.3; 2.2) 922 (61%) 1.3 (1.0; 1.6)†
 Individualized 243 (76%) Reference 243 (66%) Reference 243 (54%) Reference
HIV co-infection*
 No 1053 (86%) 1.1 (0.6; 2.1) 1089 (75%) 1.7 (1.2; 2.6) 1089 (61%) 2.2 (1.6; 3.0)
 Yes 76 (86%) Reference 76 (64%) Reference 76 (42%)  
Sex
 Female 402 (84%) 0.8 (0.6; 1.1)† 402 (74%) 0.9 (0.7; 1.2) 402 (61%) 1.1 (0.9; 1.4)
 Male 763 (87%) Reference 763 (75%) Reference 763 (58%) Reference
Age 1.0 (1.0; 1.1) 1.1 (1.0; 1.1) 1.1 (1.0; 1.1)
Macro-region
 North 153 (92%) 0.9 (0.4; 2.1) 153 (79%) 1.0 (0.6; 1.6) 153 (69%) 1.6 (1.1; 2.3)
 Northeastern 309 (82%) 0.3 (0.2; 0.6) 309 (67%) 0.5 (0.4; 0.8) 309 (54%) 0.8 (0.6; 1.1)†
 Centre-West 31 (86%) 0.6 (0.2; 2.0) 31 (82%) 1.2 (0.4; 2.8) 31 (61%) 1.1 (0.6; 2.0)†
 Southeastern 519 (86%) 0.5 (0.3; 0.9) 519 (76%) 0.9 (0.6; 1.3) 519 (61%) 1.1 (0.8; 1.5)
 South 153 (92%) Reference 153 (80%) Reference 153 (58%) Reference
Smoking
 No/unknown 1087 (86%) 1.7 (1.1; 2.9) 1087 (75%) 1.5 (1.0; 2.2)† 1087 (60%) 1.5 (1.1; 2.1)
 Yes 78 (79%) Reference 78 (68%) Reference 78 (50%) Reference
Ethnical Group
 Afro-Brazilian 687 (86%) 1.0 (0.7; 1.3) 687 (73%) 0.9 (0.7; 1.1) 687 (57%) 0.8 (0.6; 0.9)
 Indigenous 7 (88%) 1.1 (0.1; 8.9) 7 (88%) 2.1 (0.3; 17.6) 7 (70%) 1.4 (0.4; 5.5)
 Other/unknown 15 (83%) 0.8 (0.2; 2.7) 15 (79%) 1.2 (0.4; 3.5) 15 (75%) 1.8 (0.6; 5.0)
 Caucasian 455 (86%) Reference 455 (76%) Reference 455 (63%) Reference
Alcohol use
 No/unknown 978 (86%) 1.1 (0.7; 1.6) 978 (75%) 1.2 (0.8; 1.6) 978 (60%) 1.3 (1.0; 1.6)†
 Yes 187 (85%) Reference 187 (72%) Reference 187 (53%) Reference
Diabetes
 No/unknown 1006 (85%) 0.7 (0.4; 1.2)† 1006 (74%) 0.8 (0.5; 1.1)† 1006 (57%) 0.6 (0.4; 0.8)
 Yes 159 (90%) Reference 159 (79%) Reference 159 (70%) Reference
Cavity‡
 No 241 (89%) 1.3 (0.8; 2.0)† 241(76%) 1.1 (0.9; 1.4) 241(61%) 1.1 (0.9; 1.4)
 Yes 907 (85%) Reference 907 (74%) Reference 907 (58%) Reference
Bilateral disease‡
 No 432 (88%) 1.4 (1.1; 2.1) 432 (80%) 1.7 (1.3; 2.2) 432(65%) 1.5 (1.2; 1.8)
 Yes 716 (84%) Reference 716 (71%) Reference 716 (56%) Reference
AFB positive§
 No 190 (93%) 2.3 (1.3;4.1) 190 (83%) 1.7 (1.2; 2.5) 190 (69%) 1.7 (1.3; 2.2)
 Yes 960 (86%) Reference 960 (74%) Reference 960 (58%) Reference
First DR-TB episode††
 Yes 1083 (91%) 8.7 (5.9; 12.8) 1083 (81%) 5.6 (4.2; 7.8) 1083 (66%) 5.6 (4.2; 7.4)
 No 73 (52%) Reference 73 (41%) Reference 73 (26%) Reference
Number of previous treatment 0.2 (0.15; 0.26) 0.30 (0.20; 0.33) 0.26 (0.2; 0.33)
DOT
 No/unknown 233 (83%) 0.6 (0.5; 1.0)† 233 (73%) 0.9 (0.7; 1.2) 233 (56%) 0.9 (0.7; 1.1)†
 Yes 932 (87%) Reference 932 (75%) Reference 932 (59%) Reference
Six month culture conversion **
 No 181 (95%) 1.0 (0.5; 2.1) 181 (93%) 1.0 (0.5; 1.9) 181 (87%) 1.3 (0.9;2.1)
 Yes 741 (95%) Reference 741 (93%) Reference 741 (84%) Reference
Quinolone used‡‡
 Levofloxacin 799 (90%) 1.5 (0.9; 2.5)† 799 (78%) 1.6 (1.1; 2.3) 799 (62%) 1.5 (1.1; 1.9)
 Ofloxacin 123(86%) Reference 123 (69%) Reference 123 (53%) Reference
Injectable used‡‡
 Streptomycin 503 (92%) 1.7 (1.2; 2.6) 503 (82%) 1.8 (1.4; 2.4) 503 (64%) 1.4 (1.2; 1.7)
 Amikacin 419 (87%) Reference 419 (77%) Reference 419 (57%) Reference
Pyrazinamide used‡‡
 No 147 (92%) 1.5 (0.8; 2.6) 147 (74%) 0.8 (0.6;1.1)† 147 (74%) 1.0 (0.8; 1.3)
 Yes 775 (89%) Reference 775 (78%) Reference 775 (78%) Reference
  1. Abbreviations: DR-TB drug resistant tuberculosis, AFB acid fast bacilli
  2. Footnotes:
  3. Bold p value < 0.05
  4. †p value <0.20
  5. *Due to the missing values, the following number of patients were included: N = 1313 (cure vs. fail/relapse), N = 1517 (cure vs/fail/relapse/death), N = 1901 (failure/death/loss to follow-up)
  6. ‡Due to the missing values, the following number of patients were included: N = 1341 (cure vs. fail/relapse), N = 1552 (cure vs/fail/relapse/death), N = 1950 (failure/death/loss to follow-up)
  7. §Due to the missing values, the following number of patients were included: N = 1329 (cure vs. fail/relapse), N = 1535 (cure vs/fail/relapse/death), N = 1923 (failure/death/loss to follow-up)
  8. ††Due to the missing values, the following number of patients were included: N = 1329 (cure vs. fail/relapse), N = 1527 (cure vs/fail/relapse/death), N = 1927 (failure/death/loss to follow-up)
  9. **The following number of patients were included: N = 967 (cure vs. fail/relapse), N = 989 (cure vs/fail/relapse/death), N = 1085 (failure/death/loss to follow-up)
  10. ‡‡Among patients that used standardized regimens: N = 1033 (cure vs. fail/relapse), N = 1199 (cure vs/fail/relapse/death), N = 1524 (failure/death/loss to follow-up)