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Table 4 Health-related quality of life of influenza inpatients

From: The impact of influenza on the health related quality of life in China: an EQ-5D survey

  N VAS Health utility QALD lossa
   Mean
(SD)
Median
(IQR)
Multiple linear regression
(95%CI) b
Mean
(SD)
Median
(IQR)
Multiple linear regression
(95%CI) b
Mean
(SD)
Median
(IQR)
Multiple linear regression (95%CI) b
Total 249   65.94 (20.61) 70.00 (50.00, 80.00) 0.5851 (0.2197) 0.6430 (0.4770,0.7290)   3.51 (4.25) 2.17 (1.00,4.45)  
Age group (years)          p = 0.0431  
 0–4 141 65.76 (20.68) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) Reference 0.5900 (0.2025) 0.6430 (0.5440,0.7350) Reference 3.51 (3.96) 2.39 (1.12,4.75) Reference
 5–15 80 67.00 (19.87) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) 0.28
(−6.44,5.91)
0.6132 (0.2185) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7305) 0.0386
(−0.0205,0.0973)
2.75 (3.27) 1.95 (0.62,3.45) −0.91 (−1.93,0.08)
 16–59 24 63.67 (23.93) 60.00 (50.00,90.00) −2.07
(−11.72,7.10)
0.4913 (0.2828) 0.5965 (0.2240,0.6645) −0.0847
(−0.1904,0.0114)
5.16 (6.07) 2.59 (1.46,7.11) 1.49 (−0.69,4.16)
 ≥60c 4 65.00 (17.32) 65.00 (50.00,80.00) −2.07
(−11.72,7.10)
0.4128 (0.2690) 0.4210 (0.2938,0.5400) −0.0847
(−0.1904,0.0114)
8.98 (10.79) 4.83 (3.49,10.32) 1.49 (−0.69,4.16)
Gender
 Female 105 63.27 (21.24) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) Reference 0.5633 (0.2380) 0.6430 (0.4280,0.7290) Reference 3.64 (4.07) 2.60 (1.05,4.45) Reference
 Male 144 67.9 (19.99) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) 5.11
(−0.64,10.66)
0.6010 (0.2046) 0.6430 (0.5380,0.7350) 0.0471
(−0.0110,0.1017)
3.41 (4.38) 2.04 (0.91,4.39) −0.46 (−1.38,0.58)
Risk status d    p = 0.0347    p = 0.0022    p < 0.001  
 Low-risk 118 68.91 (20.75) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) Reference 0.6340 (0.1774) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7350) Reference 2.18 (2.26) 1.63 (0.87,3.04) Reference
 High-risk 131 63.27 (20.2) 60.00 (50.00,80.00) −5.8
(−10.90, −1.00)g
0.5411 (0.2442) 0.6300 (0.4155,0.6490) −0.0943
(−0.1455, −0.0412)g
4.71 (5.17) 3.25 (1.52,6.46) 2.47
(1.61, 3.62)g
Area
 Urban 166 64.27 (20.89) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) Reference 0.5993 (0.2018) 0.6430 (0.5488,0.7290) Reference 3.20 (3.40) 2.07 (1.25,4.37) Reference
 Rural 83 69.3 (19.75) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) 5.11
(−0.34,10.57)
0.5566 (0.2505) 0.6430 (0.3840,0.7350) −0.0390
(−0.1051,0.0197)
4.14 (5.54) 2.60 (0.87,4.86) 0.93
(−0.16,2.24)
Region
 East China 113 66.58 (21.65) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) Reference 0.6066 (0.2101) 0.6430 (0.5200,0.7350) Reference 3.36 (4.35) 1.98 (0.88,4.21) Reference
 Central China 78 64.5 (19.46) 65.00 (50.00,80.00) −2.67
(−9.21,3.46)
0.5917 (0.2194) 0.6430 (0.5690,0.7290) −0.0211
(−0.0895,0.0422)
3.02 (2.89) 2.25 (1.01,4.35) −0.27
(−1.51,0.81)
 West China 58 66.64 (20.29) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) −1.27
(−8.85,5.80)
0.5343 (0.2337) 0.5815 (0.3808,0.6430) −0.0774
(−0.1488, −0.0033)g
4.47 (5.35) 2.64 (1.36,5.44) 1.21
(−0.34,2.87)
Hospital e
 Level 3 172 65.62 (19.88) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) Reference 0.6003 (0.1956) 0.6430 (0.5440,0.7350) Reference 3.19 (3.53) 2.12 (1.04,4.02) Reference
 Level 2 58 66.43 (22.89) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) 0.69
(−6.22,7.34)
0.5339 (0.2797) 0.6430 (0.3650,0.7290) −0.0574
(−0.1382,0.0129)
4.59 (5.96) 2.57 (1.25,5.5) 1.33
(−0.10,3.44)
 Level 1 and lower 19 67.37 (20.84) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) 0.80
(−11.79,11.42)
0.6032 (0.2065) 0.6430 (0.4955,0.7380) 0.0100
(−0.0941,0.0998)
3.08 (3.58) 1.95 (0.83,4.6) −0.29
(−1.95,1.76)
Virus type
 Untyped f 183 64.96 (19.94) 70.00 (50.00,80.00) Reference 0.5770 (0.2220) 0.6430 (0.4770,0.7290) Reference 3.74 (4.63) 2.17 (1.07,4.86) Reference
 Influenza A 30 67.83 (22.12) 70.00 (52.50,80.00) 0.63 (−8.18,10.13) 0.6382 (0.2139) 0.6430 (0.5875,0.7350) 0.0575 (−0.0335,0.1317) 2.35 (2.52) 1.52 (0.50,3.25) −1.45 (−2.94, −0.14)g
 Influenza B 36 69.39 (22.73) 77.50 (56.00,86.25) 3.55 (−4.96,11.79) 0.5821 (0.2119) 0.6430 (0.4648,0.7290) −0.0301 (−0.1191,0.0390) 3.29 (3.07) 2.71 (1.11,3.98) 0.25 (−0.91,1.42)
  1. a QALD: quality-adjusted life days
  2. b Compared to the reference, absolute increase or decrease of the VAS, health utility and/or QALD loss. And we obtained the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap percentile confidence interval using the R function “boot.ci”
  3. c 4 patients in the ≥60 age group were grouped into 15–59 years of age group in the multivariable linear regression analysis
  4. d Risk status: high risk patients refer to those with underlying medical conditions including: chronic respiratory disease, asthma, chronic cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic liver disease, and chronic renal disease, etc. Other patients without these underlying diseases are low risk patients
  5. e Level 3 is the top level, followed by level 2 and level 1 in order
  6. f Untyped: Laboratory tests for influenza virus type identification were not conducted
  7. g p < 0.05: significant differences