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Table 1 Summary of all studies included in the systematic review

From: A scoping review of prevalence, incidence and risk factors for HIV infection amongst young people in Brazil

First Author Location Sample (N) Data collection Design Main Results Reference
Pechansky Porto Alegre RS CTA attendees (1026; 390 aged <25) 1995; 1997 Repeated cross-section HIV prevalence for <25 year olds: 11.5% [14]
Alves Santos, SP CTA attendees (7794; 2769 aged <25) 1996-1999 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <25 year olds: 3.1%
Recent HIV infection for <25 year olds: 0.3% (based on STARHS algorithm)
[15]
Bassols Porto Alegre RS Adolescent CTA attendees (287) 2000-2001 Cross-section HIV prevalence among boys: 4.8%
HIV prevalence among girls: 7.4%
[16]
de Araújo Campos dos Goytacazes RJ CTA attendees (7386; 1129 aged 13-19; 1878 aged 20-24) 2001-2002 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 13-19 year olds: non-pregnant women: 0%; pregnant women: 0.5%; men: 12.1%
HIV prevalence for 20-24 year olds: non-pregnant women: 5.8%; pregnant women: 0.47%; men: 6.4%
[17]
Bassols Porto Alegre RS Female adolescent CTA attendees (258) 2000-2001 Cross-section HIV prevalence: 7.4%
Risk factors: Composite drug risk: using illicit drugs & visiting drug using/selling places (aOR: 4.18, 95%CI: 1.47-11.8)
[18]
Bassols Porto Alegre RS Adolescent CTA attendees (402) Not reported Cross-section HIV prevalence: 6.2%
Risk factors: SCL-90-R psychiatric score (aOR: 1.88, 95%CI: 1.06-3.34); Composite sexual behavior risk (aOR: 1.63, 95%CI: 0.98-2.70)
[19]
Cook Rio de Janeiro RJ Women attending CTA (200; 44 aged 14-19; 97 aged 20-24) 2001 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 14-19 year olds: 6.8%
HIV prevalence for 20-24 year olds: 9.3%
[20]
Bassichetto Sao Paulo SP Attendees of 4 CTAs who tested positive for HIV-1 (485; 14 aged 14-19.9; 82 aged 20-24.9) 2002-2004 Cross-section Risk factors: Recent infection not associated with age: (14-19 years old: 28.6%; 20-24 years old: 24.4%) [21]
de Souza Goias state and Federal District Attendees of 15 CTAs (16,991; 784 male and 1652 females aged 13-19) 2003-2004 Cross-section HIV prevalence for males aged 13-19: 1.1%
HIV prevalence for females aged 13-19: 0.2%
[22]
Monteiro Feira de Santana, BA Attendees of the municipal CTA aged 11-18 (3482; 664 male, 1183 non-pregnant female, 1635 pregnant female) 2003-2012 Cross-section HIV prevalence for males: 1.08%
HIV prevalence for non-pregnant females: 1.05%
HIV prevalence for pregnant women: 0.31%
[23]
de Castro Rio de Janeiro, RJ Attendees of 3 CTAs (9008; 2525 aged <25) 2004-2005 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <25 year olds: 2.6%
HIV incidence for <25 year olds: 0.6%/year (based on BED-CEIA test)
[24]
Scheineder Santa Catarina state Attendees of 14 CTAs (22,846; 2416 aged 10-19) 2005 Cross-section HIV prevalence for females aged 10-19: 0.9%
HIV prevalence for males aged 10-19: 2.1%
[25]
Cavalcanti Recife PE Attendees of 5 CTAs (32,256; 16,161 aged <25) 2007-2009 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <25 year olds: 0.82% (95%CI: 0.68-0.97%)
Recent infection for <25 year olds: 12/27 prevalent cases (based on BED-CEIA test)
[26]
Pereira Feira de Santana BA Attendees of the municipal CTA (3768) 2007-2011 Cross-section HIV prevalence for males: 3.0%
HIV prevalence for females: 1.6%
Risk factors for females: drug use (PrR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.15-3.82); alcohol use (PrR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.16-3.91); married (PrR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.09-3.75)
Risk factors for males: use of drugs other than alcohol (PrR: 13.25, 95%CI: 5.12-34.28); MSM (PrR: 5.21, 95%CI: 2.57-10.57)
[27]
Andrade Neto Curitiba PR Blood Donors (213,666; 177 aged <18, 51,670 aged 18-25) 1992-1999 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <18 year olds: 0.56%
HIV prevalence for 18-25 year olds: 0.14%
[28]
Kupek Santa Catarina state Blood Donors (293,725; 95,797 aged 16-24) 2007-2013 Cross-section; Cohort HIV prevalence for 16-24 year olds: 1.22% (95%CI: 1.01-1.46)
HIV incidence for 16-24 year olds: 0.28 per 100PY (95%CI: 0.20-0.37)
Seroprevalence rose throughout the study period for males but for females it rose only until 2012, then declined.
[29]
Souza Recife PE Pregnant women seeking antenatal care (1000; 0.9% aged <15, 31.6% aged 15-20) 1993 Cross-Section 0 pregnant women aged <21 out of ~325 were HIV+ [30]
de Freitas Oliveira Sao Paulo SP HIV-positive pregnant women seeking antenatal care (106; 10 aged 15-19, 28 aged 20-24) 1991-2002 Cross-section Recent HIV infection for 15-19 year olds: 10%
Recent HIV infection for 20-24 year olds: 17.9% (based on STARHS algorithm)
No significant association between age and recent infection status
[31]
Reiche Londrina PR Pregnant women at a teaching hospital (1473; 290 aged 10-20) 1996-1998 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 10-20 year olds: 1.0% [32]
Souza Campina Grande PB Pregnant women at prenatal services (386; 127 aged 14-19; 140 aged 20-25) 2001 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 14-19 year olds: 0.0%
HIV prevalence for 20-25 year olds: 0.07%
[33]
de Macedo Orione Cuiabá MT Postpartum women (1607; 575 aged 15-20; 525 aged 21-25) 2001-2002 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 15-20 year olds: 0.5%
HIV prevalence for 21-25 year olds: 0.4%
[34]
Figueiró-Filho Campo Grande, MS Pregnant women at prenatal services (35,512; 9906 aged 11-20) 2002-2003 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <21 years old: 0.2%
No significant association between age and HIV serostatus
[35]
Cardoso 27 Southern Brazil cities Pregnant women attending CTAs (8002; 4630 aged 12-25) 2003 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 12-25 year olds: 0.5% [36]
Costa Goiania GO Pregnant women at prenatal services (28,561, 6664 aged 12-19) 2004-2005 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 12-19 year olds: 0.03% [37]
Costa Feira de Santana BA Pregnant women aged <25 at prenatal services (3030) 2004 - 2008 Cross-section HIV prevalence for ≤16 year olds: 0.3%
HIV prevalence for 17-19 year olds: 0.5%
HIV prevalence for 20-24 year olds: 0.1%
[38]
Pinho-Pompeu Campinas, SP Pregnant women at prenatal services (458 aged 10-19) 2005-2013 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 10-19 year olds: 1.97%
There was a positive association between anemia and HIV infection (p = 0.02)
[39]
de Melo Inagaki Sergipe state Pregnant women at prenatal services (9550; 24.9% aged 10-19) 2007 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 10-19 year olds: 0.09% [40]
Moura Maceió, AL Pregnant women at prenatal services (54,616; 17,231 aged <19) 2007-2012 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <19 year olds: 0.3% [41]
Miranda National Women in labor at public hospitals (2071) 2009 Cross-section HIV prevalence: 0.7%
Risk factors: Living in the North region (aOR: 2.0 95%CI: 1.07-3.73); STI history (aOR: 42.5, 95%CI: 1.89-168.49)
[42]
Ferezin 29 cities in Paraná state Pregnant women at a teaching hospital (1534; 354 aged 14-19) 2010 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 14-19 year olds: 0.3% [43]
Domingues National Pregnant women (23,894; 4570 aged 12-19) 2011-2012 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 12-19 year olds: 0.14% [44]
Pinto Belo Horizonte MG Inmates in a youth correctional institute (394; 195 previously street-based, 199 previously home-based) 1989-1991 Case-control HIV prevalence for street-based youth: 2%
HIV prevalence for home-based youth: 0%
Risk factors: 2 of 3 HIV-positive males reported using injection drugs; all HIV-positive youths reported heterosexual activity
[45]
Zanetta Sao Paulo SP Inmates in a youth correctional institute (1215) 1994 Cross-section HIV prevalence for females: 10.3%
HIV prevalence for males: 2.6%
Risk factors for females: Commercial sex work (OR = 5.98 (95%CI: 1.04-34.30)
Risk factors for males: HCV seropositivity [OR = 26.5 (95%CI: 8.83-79.70)]; age > 18 [OR = 3.45 (95%CI: 1.21-9.86)]; PWID [OR = 3.39 (95%CI: 1.10-10.4)
[46]
Coelho Ribeirão Preto, SP Inmates in a correctional institute (333; 96 aged <25) 2003 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 19-24 year olds: 0.09% [47]
Fialho Salvador BA Incarcerated youth aged 11-18 (297) 2004-2005 Cross-section HIV prevalence: 0.34% [48]
Harrison Rio de Janeiro, RJ High-risk HIV- MSM recruited at HIV testing sites and MSM venues (750; 242 aged <25) 1995-1997 Cohort HIV incidence for <20 year olds: 8.4 (95%CI: 1.7-15) per 100PY
HIV incidence for 20-24 year olds: 3.9 (95%CI: 1.7-6.1) per 100PY
Age < 25 was associated with HIV seroconversion (aRR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.3-5.6)
[49]
Szwarcwald National Military conscripts (1997: 9844; 1998: 30,318; 1999: 29,373; 2000: 23,659; 2002: 30,970) 1997-2002 Cross-section HIV prevalence (2002): 0.09%
Risk factors: positive syphilis test OR = 5.72 (95%CI: 1.32-24.9), MSM OR = 4.06 (95%CI: 1.29-12.8), At least 1 STI related problem OR = 2.76 (95%CI: 1.18-6.45), More than 10 lifetime sexual partners OR = 2.33 (95%CI: 1.05-5.18), Resident of Southern Brazil OR = 2.77 (95%CI: 1.10-6.99)
[50]
Soares Campinas SP MSM (658; 167 aged 14-19, 190 aged 20-24) 2005-2006 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 14-19 year olds: 2.9%
HIV prevalence for 20-24 year olds: 5.9%
[51]
Szwarcwald National Military conscript personnel aged 17-21 (35,432, of whom ~800 report being MSM) 2007 Cross-section HIV prevalence overall: 0.1%
HIV prevalence for MSM: 1.2%
Risk factors: being MSM OR = 11.16 (95%CI: 4.90-25.39); having at least one STI-related problem OR = 2.53 (95%CI: 1.20-5.36); >10 lifetime partners OR = 2.52 (95%CI: 1.21-5.25)
[52]
Guimarães Belo Horizonte, MG MSM (272; 113 aged <24) 2010 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <24 year olds: 2.8% [53]
de Souza São Paulo, SP MSM (771; number aged <25 not reported) 2011-2012 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 18-24 year olds: 6.4% (95%CI: 3.5-11.5%) [54]
Trevisol Imbituba SC Female sex workers (90; 44 aged <26) 2003-2004 Cross-section HIV prevalence for <26 year olds: 6.8% [55]
Schuelter-Trevisol Santa Catarina state Sex workers (147; 57 aged 18-24) 2009 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 18-24 year olds: 5.3% [56]
Costa Porto Alegre, RS Male to Female transsexuals (284; 128 aged 15-26) 1998-2014 Cross-section HIV prevalence for 18-26 year olds: 14.8% [57]
Freitas-Carvalho Rio Branco, AC Attendees of immunization campaign (390; 118 aged 12-21) 1999 Cross-section HIV prevalence: 0% [58]
Codes Salvador, BA Women attending a public family planning clinic (202; 70 aged <22; 77 aged 22-25) Not reported Cross-section HIV prevalence for <21 year olds: 0%
HIV prevalence for 22-25 year olds: 4%
[59]
Szwarcwald Recife, PE and Curitiba, PR General population (902 in Recife; 1013 in Curitiba) 2013 Cross-section HIV incidence for 13-24 year olds in Curitiba, PR: 0.060%/year (18.8% of all HIV-positive)
HIV incidence for 13-24 year olds in Recife, PE: 0.059% (19.4% of all HIV-positive)
[60]
Silveira Pelotas RS HIV-positive women (144; 11 aged 15-19, 39 aged 20-24); AIDS-diagnosed women (130; 7 aged 15-19, 13 aged 20-24); door-to-door interviewed controls (1537; 151 aged 15-19, 240 aged 20-24) 1999-2000 (controls);
2003-2004 (cases)
Case-control Risk factors: Odds of being HIV-positive were higher for 15-19 year olds (OR: 3.0, 95%CI: 1.4-6.6) and for 20-24 year olds (OR: 6.2, 95%CI: 1.4-11.4) than for those aged ≥40 [61]
  1. All sample sizes cited are analytic, and thus do not include non-respondents. CTA Counselling and testing center, MSM Men who have sex with men, PWID People Who Inject Drugs, STI Sexually Transmitted Infection, STARHS Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion, OR Odds Ratio, aOR Adjusted Odds Ratio, PrR Prevalence Ratio, 100PY 100 person-years