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Table 2 Risk of bias in included studies for the systematic review on detection of HBV-DNA and update of the systematic review on detection of HCV-RNA from DBS samples compared to venous blood sampling (plasma/serum)

From: Diagnostic accuracy of detection and quantification of HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA using dried blood spot (DBS) samples – a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Patient selection Bias Index test Bias Reference standard Bias Flow and timing Bias
  Was a case control design avoided
Consecutive or random sample of patients
Inappropriate exclusions
Blinded to reference standard?
Could the conduct or interpretation of the index test have introduced bias?
Are laboratory personelle blinded to index test?
Could the reference standard have introduced bias?
Is there an appropriate interval between the index test and reference standard?
All patients receive the same reference standard?
All patients recruited into the study are included in the analysis?
HBV-DNA
Alidjinou NR, but no case control design UR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR NR UR
Alhusseini Case control design, sampling NR HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR NR UR
Durgadevi Case control design HR NR UR NR UR NR UR
Gupta Selection of only known HBV carriers, HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Partly reported LR
Gruner NR UR Not blinded, NR UR NR UR NR UR
Jardi R selection only of cases HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Partly reported LR
Lira R Selection of only cases HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR NR UR
Mohamed S Case control design HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR NR UR
Mossner Sampling from high-risk and low risk groups HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Sampling reported, same reference standard, all patients included in analysis LR
Ross No case control design, sampling NR HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Flow reported LR
Stene- Johannsen Sampling from high-risk HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Sampling reported, same reference standard, all patients included in analysis LR
Vinikoor No case control design, only cases HR Not blinded interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Flow reported LR
HCV-RNA
Dokubo No case control, concurrent sampling from a prospective cohort LR NR UR NR UR Sampling reported, same reference standard, all patients recruited included in analysis LR
Gruner NR UR Not blinded, NR UR NR UR NR UR
Marins Only cases HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR NR, same reference standard, NR UR
Marques NR UR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR NR, same reference standard, NR UR
Mossner Sampling from high-risk and low risk groups HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Sampling reported, same reference standard, all patients included in analysis LR
Soulier Sampling from high-risk and low risk-groups HR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR Not blinded, interpretation unbiased LR NR, same reference standard, NR LR
  1. HR High risk of bias, LR Low risk of bias, UR Unclear risk of bias, NR Not reported