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Table 4 Types of testing used for different programmes

From: Values, preferences and current hepatitis B and C testing practices in low- and middle-income countries: results of a survey of end users and implementers

Targeted population Number of LMIC (% of LMIC)*
HBV testing HCV testing
RDT/EIA/RIA DNA FS RDT/EIA/RIA RNA cAg FS
Blood donors 18 (90%) 5 (25%) 0 19 (86.4%) 5 (22.7%) 0 1 (4.5%)
Health-care workers 12 (60%) 3 (15%) 0 10 (45.5%) 1 (4.5%) 0 0
People who inject drugs 9 (45%) 3 (15%) 0 11 (50%) 1 (4.5%) 0 1 (4.5%)
Men who have sex with men 8 (40%) 1 (5%) 0 6 (27.3%) 0 0 0
Migrants 0 0 0 1 (4.5%) 0 0 0
Pregnant women 15 (75%) 2 (10%) 0 7 (31.8%) 1 (4.5%) 0 0
Children born to HCV/HBV-infected mothers 14 (70%) 4 (20%) 0 12 (54.5%) 3 (13.6%) 0 1 (4.5%)
Chronically ill 6 (30%) 1 (5%) 0 7 (31.8%) 0 0 0
Commercial sex workers 8 (40%) 1 (5%) 0 3 (13.6%) 0 0 0
People living with HIV 12 (60%) 6 (30%) 1 (5%) 9 (40.9%) 1 (4.5%) 0 1 (4.5%)
Prisoners 4 (20%) 1 (5%) 1 (5%) 5 (22.7%) 1 (4.5%) 0 1 (4.5%)
Population-wide testing 4 (20%) 1 (5%) 1 (5%) 2 (9.1%) 0 0 0
Testing is not a part of any programme 1 (5%) 0 0 1 (4.5%) 1 (4.5%) 0 1 (4.5%)
Other 1 (5%) 1 (5%) 1 (5%) 1 (4.5%) 0 0 0
Total 20 22
  1. *number and per cent of LMIC refer to LMIC represented in the survey responses
  2. RDT/EIA/RIA – rapid diagnostic test/enzyme immunoassay/radioimmunoassay; DNA – HBV DNA test; RNA – HCV RNA test; cAg – HCV core antigen test; FS – Fibrosis staging