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Table 1 Characteristics of patients according to isolation of multidrug-resistant microorganism in exacerbation

From: Risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens in bronchiectasis exacerbations

Characteristics Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms Isolated
   No Yes p g
Total No.   127 (79.9) 32 (20.1)  
Demographic data Age 70 (62–77) 75 (68–79.5) 0.056
>65 years 82 (64.6) 25 (78.1) 0.159
Male 50 (39.4) 18 (56.2) 0.085
Smoker or former smoker 58 (45.7) 18 (56.2) 0.284
Alcohol abusea 6 (4.7) 2 (6.2) 0.724
Flu vaccine 89 (70.1) 18 (56.2) 0.136
Comorbid condition Arterial hypertension 54 (42.5) 20 (62.5) 0.043
Diabetes mellitus 20 (15.7) 7 (21.9) 0.409
Myocardial infarction 11 (8.7) 1 (3.1) 0.289
Congestive heart failure 14 (11) 8 (25) 0.041
Cerebrovascular disease 3 (2.4) 1 (3.1) 0.805
COPDb 32 (25.2) 14 (43.8) 0.039
Asthma 12 (9.4) 3 (9.4) 0.990
Previous pulmonary tuberculosis 11 (8.7) 4 (12.5) 0.507
Renal disease 6 (4.7) 7 (21.9) 0.002
Liver disease 8 (6.3) 2 (6.2) 0.984
Age-adjusted Charlson >5 46 (36.2) 17 (53.1) 0.081
Cystic bronchiectasis 7 (5.5) 4 (12.9) 0.147
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection 58 (45.7) 18 (56.2) 0.284
Chronic infection by other microorganism 32 (25.2) 9 (29) 0.662
Prior isolation of MDRc microorganism 11 (8.7) 13 (40.6) 0.000
Treatment Long-acting B-agonist 99 (78) 28 (87.5) 0.229
Long-acting Anticholinergic 72 (56.7) 19 (59.4) 0.784
Theophylline 5 (3.9) 3 (9.4) 0.208
Inhaled corticosteroids 96 (75.6) 26 (81.2) 0.498
Long term oral corticosteroidsd 11 (8.7) 2 (6.2) 0.656
Long term oral antibiotics 15 (11.8) 4 (12.5) 0.914
Inhaled/Nebulized antibiotic 25 (19.7) 11 (34.4) 0.076
Mucolytics 43 (33.9) 9 (28.1) 0.537
Proton pump inhibitor 65 (51.2) 20 (62.5) 0.251
Chronic oxygen therapy 14 (11) 9 (28.1) 0.014
Regular chest physiotherapy 43 (33.9) 10 (31.2) 0.780
History of exacerbations Hospitalization last year 62 (48.8) 26 (81.2) 0.001
Previous history of pneumonia 67 (52.8) 14 (43.8) 0.362
Exacerbation last year 98 (77.2) 28 (87.5) 0.198
N° exacerbations last year 1 (1–2) 2 (1–3) 0.108
Courses of antibiotic last year 1 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 0.366
Prognostic scales Severe FACEDe 16 (12.6) 9 (28.1) 0.031
Severe BSIf 74 (58.3) 26 (81.2) 0.016
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range)
  2. aAlcohol abuse: more than 80 g/day
  3. bCOPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  4. cMDR: multidrug-resistant
  5. dLong term oral steroids: less than 20 mg/day prednisone or equivalent
  6. eFACED: FEV1, age, colonization, extension, dyspnea
  7. fBSI: bronchiectasis severity index
  8. g p value: the χ2 test was performed for categorical data and the Mann-Whitney U test was performed for continuous data