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Table 2 Rates of treatment change, and crude and adjusted hazard ratios

From: Five-year trends in treatment changes in an adult cohort of HIV/AIDS patients in Ghana: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Enrollees (%) Treatment changes (%) Follow-up/months Rates/ 1000 cHazard Ratio* 95% CI p-value aHazard Ratio# 95% CI p-value
YEAR N = 3933 N = 960         
 2008 836 (21.3) 234 (24.4) 30,937.9 7.56
 2009 810 (20.6) 240 (25.0) 21,883.7 10.97 1.46 1.21 to 1.75 <0.0001 1.54 1.27 to 1.88 <0.0001
 2010 804 (20.4) 280 (29.2) 15,640.9 17.90 2.75 2.27 to 3.33 <0.0001 4.15 3.34 to 5.14 <0.0001
 2011 753 (19.1) 171 (17.8) 9137.9 18.73 2.99 2.39 to 3.73 <0.0001 11.55 8.70 to 15.35 <0.0001
 2012 730 (18.6) 35 (3.6) 3736.3 9.37 1.33 0.91 to 1.94 0.139 1.43 0.89 to 2.33 0.153
HAART TYPE
 AZT/3TC/EFV 1468 (37.3) 117 (12.2) 33,335.5 3.51
 AZT/3TC/NVP 898 (22.8) 90 (9.4) 23,238.4 3.87 1.10 0.83 to 1.44 0.510 1.14 0.85 to 1.53 0.381
 d4T/3TC/EFV 718 (18.3) 461 (48.0) 12,751.1 36.15 10.80 8.80 to 13.35 <0.0001 12.05 9.58 to 15.16 <0.0001
 d4T/3TC/NVP 399 (10.1) 270 (28.1) 7705.4 35.04 10.42 8.38 to 12.96 <0.0001 12.03 9.27 to 15.61 <0.0001
 TDF/3TC/EFV 314 (8.0) 5 (0.5) 2528.6 1.98 0.59 0.24 to 1.45 0.252 0.22 0.09 to 0.56 0.0013
 TDF/3TC/NVP 71 (1.8) 3 (0.3) 637.5 4.71 1.43 0.45 to 4.50 0.542 0.58 0.18 to 1.85 0.358
 OTHERS 65 (1.7) 14 (1.5) 1130.3 12.39 3.69 2.19 to 6.42 <0.0001 2.99 1.71 to 5.23 0.0001
GENDER
 Male 1373 (34.9) 282 (29.4) 28,625.7 9.85
 Female 2560 (65.1) 678 (70.6) 52,701.0 12.87 1.31 1.14 to 1.50 0.0002 1.19 1.01 to 1.39 0.031
AGE GROUP
  < 25 199 (5.1) 44 (4.6) 3573.7 12.31
 25–34 1112 (28.3) 277 (28.8) 24,080.0 11.50 0.95 0.69 to 1.31 0.755 1.01 0.73 to 1.40 0.939
 35–44 1251 (31.8) 307 (32.0) 25,904.0 11.85 0.97 0.71 to 1.33 0.864 1.03 0.75 to 1.42 0.871
 45–54 709 (18.0) 169 (17.6) 14,081.4 12.00 0.99 0.71 to 1.37 0.945 1.09 0.78 to 1.54 0.605
 55–64 192 (4.8) 44 (4.6) 3633.0 12.11 0.99 0.65 to 1.51 0.968 0.93 0.60 to 1.42 0.721
  ≥ 65 470 (12.0) 119 (12.4) 10,054.6 11.84 0.98 0.69 to 1.38 0.903 0.94 0.66 to 1.33 0.706
WHO Stage
 I 402 (10.2) 37 (3.9) 5840.4 6.34
 II 662 (16.8) 68 (7.1) 14,568.5 4.67 0.76 0.51 to 1.14 0.189 0.87 0.71 to 1.36 0.294
 II 1042 (26.5) 187 (19.4) 15,465.5 12.09 1.93 1.36 to 2.74 0.0003 2.33 1.44 to 3.02 0.007
 IV 491 (12.5) 115 (12.0) 7901.6 14.55 2.31 1.60 to 3.35 <0.0001 2.73 1.49 to 4.02 <0.0001
 Missing 1336 (34.0) 553 (57.6) 37,550.7 14.73 2.38 1.71 to 3.33 <0.0001 2.83 1.82 to 3.88 <0.0001
  1. *crude hazard ratios; #adjusted hazard ratios for all other variables