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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis [1]

From: Acute HIV infection presenting as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: case report and review of the literature

 Viral Epstein-Barr Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Parvovirus, Herpes Simplex Virus, Varicella-Zoster Virus, Measles, Human Herpes Virus-8, H1N1 Influenza Virus, Parechovirus, HIV
 Bacterial Brucella spp., Gram negative bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus,
 Fungal Candida, Cryptococcus, Pneumocystis, Histoplasma, Aspergillus
 Parasitic Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Toxoplasma, Leishmania, Strongyloides
Inflammatory Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki’s disease systemic lupus erythematosus and other rheumatologic diseases
Neoplastic T-cell/NK-cell lymphomas, anaplastic large cell lymphomas, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, various solid tumours (prostate, lung, hepatocellular carcinoma)
Immunodeficiencies Inherited or acquired immunodeficiency