Skip to main content

Table 2 The 27 factors selected from the literature search that were included in the modeling analysis

From: Possible explanations for why some countries were harder hit by the pandemic influenza virus in 2009 – a global mortality impact modeling study

Factor type Factor Factor measurement for 2009 # Metric unit Data source No. Countries with data Value range or % – all countries Value range or % – stage 1 countries Stage 1 countries with data (20)
Environmental Pollution pm10 1 μg/m3 World Bank 167 6.7–156.2 11.7–60.2
co2 emissions 2 (KT) per 1000 174 0.06–6533.0 15.1–6533.0
Crowding Pop. Density 3 Per square km 178 1.75–7125.1 2.9–7125.2  
Cold Climate Latitude 4 Absolute degree 178 0–65 1–56
Physiological comorbidities in adults Obesity BMI > 30
(% both sexes)
5 % WHO 176 1.1–59.6 4.5–33.5  
BMI > 30
(% females)
6 175 19.8–36.3 21.7–29.9
BMI > 30
(% of males)30
7 175 20.1–32.7 22.7–29.3  
Pulmonary Disease Female COPD deaths 8 Per 100,000 173 4–125 7–89
Male COPD deaths 9 170 8–178 19–118  
Immuno-suppression %HIV 10 % World Bank 145 0.1–25.9 0.1–17.8
TB 11 Per 100,00 172 0.8–1193 4.5–808
% HIV ARTs 12 %HIV * %HIV ARTS 102 0.004–22.3 0.07–7.5  
Physiological comorbidities in children Asthma %13 and 14 yr. olds with wheeze 13 % Global Asthma Report 50 3–28 5.1–28
Treatment Antiviral Use Kilos of drugs distributed 2007–2009 14 Per 100,000 IMS 60 0–16.2 0.06–15.1  
Kilos of drugs distributed 2009 15 60 0–16.1 0.05–8.1  
Healthcare Healthcare expenditure Healthcare spending as %GDP 16 % World Bank 173 2.0–16.2 3.9–16.2  
Demographics Population age % < 15 17 % total population World Bank 176 13–50 13–31
% > 60 18 176 2–30 7–30
Population growth Pregnancy -Crude birth rate 19 Per 1000 178 8.1–53.2 8.1–21.7
pH1N1 Viral Factors Pandemic factors Pandemic Start 20 Weeks (1–52) FluNet 81 5–46 5–37
Pandemic Peak 21 86 15–50 21–46
Pre and co-circulation 2008 H3N2 dominance 22 0 or 1
(1= > 50%)
69 34.8 35.3  
2008 sH1N1 dominance 23 69 18.8 23.5  
2009 H3N2 co-circulation 24 0 r 1
(1= > 1%)
90 46.7 52.6  
2009 flu B co-circulation 25 90 35.6 21.1
Other CDC multiplier Lower respiratory deaths 26 Per 100,000 CDC paper 169 3–275 11–107
International flight traffic All registered take offs 27 Per 1000 World Bank 137 0–9182.4 25.5–9182.4