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Table 1 Resistance to cefixime, azithromycin and ciprofloxacin in N. gonorrhoeae isolates from 24 EU/EEA countries, 2015

From: Overall Low Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin Resistance but high Azithromycin Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 24 European Countries, 2015

Country No. of isolates tested Resistance Method of testing
Cefixime Azithromycin Ciprofloxacin
No. % No. % No. %
Austria 61 0 0.0% 2 3.3% 40 65.6% Decentralised – Etest
Belgium 99 11 11.1% 3 3.0% 49 49.5% Decentralised – AD
Croatia 8 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 3 37.5% Centralised – Etest
Cyprus 3 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 2 66.7% Decentralised – Etest
Denmark 110 0 0.0% 3 2.7% 34 30.9% Decentralised – Etest
Estonia 18 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 5 27.8% Centralised – Etest
France 105 0 0.0% 6 5.7% 44 41.9% Decentralised – Etest
Germany 109 2 1.8% 2 1.8% 67 61.5% Centralised – BKP/Etest
Greecea 100 11 11.0% 22 22.0% 77 77.0% Decentralised – Etest
Hungary 64 1 1.6% 3 4.7% 34 53.1% Centralised - BKP/Etest
Iceland 14 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 4 28.6% Decentralised – Etest
Ireland 110 1 0.9% 20 18.2% 50 45.5% Decentralised – Etest
Italy 100 0 0.0% 2 2.0% 71 71.0% Decentralised – Etest
Latvia 9 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 1 11.1% Centralised – Etest
Malta 29 0 0.0% 4 13.8% 19 65.5% Decentralised – Etest
Netherlands 200 0 0.0% 8 4.0% 74 37.0% Decentralised – Etest
Norway 110 1 0.9% 4 3.6% 64 58.7%b Decentralised – AD
Poland 56 0 0.0% 3 5.4% 32 57.1% Centralised – Etest
Portugal 110 0 0.0% 19 17.3% 41 37.3% Decentralised – Etest
Slovakia 104 4 3.8% 2 1.9% 56 53.8% Centralised – Etest
Slovenia 109 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 38 34.9% Decentralised – Etest
Spain 167 4 2.4% 5 3.0% 109 65.3% Decentralised – Etest
Sweden 100 0 0.0% 14 14.0% 45 45.0% Decentralised – Etest
UK 239 1 0.4% 30 12.6% 95 39.7% Decentralised – AD/Etest
Total:         
Cefixime 2132 36 1.7%      
Ciprofloxacin 2133      1054 49.4%  
Azithromycin 2134    152 7.1%    
95% CI    1.2–2.3   6.1–8.3   47.3–51.5  
  1. EU/EEA European Union/European Economic Area, No. Number, Etest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) gradient strips to determine the MIC of an antimicrobial (mostly Etests, but also some other MIC gradient strips were used in some countries), AD agar dilution method to determine the MIC of an antimicrobial, BKP Breakpoint agar dilution method, CI confidence interval of the mean %
  2. aOnly one (0.05%) ceftriaxone resistant isolate was identified in Euro-GASP in 2015 (in Greece; MIC = 0.25 mg/L)
  3. bCalculated from 109 isolates with ciprofloxacin results