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Table 2 The results of subgroup analyses by characteristics of patient populations

From: Incidence, temporal trend and factors associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia in mainland China: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Subgroups Studies Sample size Estimate (%)a 95% CI (%) I 2 (%) p valueb
Overallc 93 71,816 23.8 20.6–27.2 98.9 -
Gender       
 Male 11 2303 22.4 16.6–28.7 90.5 0.085
 Female 11 1577 15.8 11.7–20.5 76.8  
Age       
 <60 years 4 1219 14.0 10.5–17.9 55.6 0.039
 ≥60 years 6 956 30.8 15.2–49.1 96.7  
Comatose       
 Yes 4 318 55.9 42.5–69.0 79.8 <0.001
 No 4 2073 10.2 4.7–17.5 94.6  
Diabetes       
 Yes 4 73 42.7 16.4–71.4 84.6 0.276
 No 4 442 26.8 20.8–33.2 52.5  
Duration of ventilation       
 < 7 days 10 3582 6.6 4.7–8.9 77.7 <0.001
 7–13 days 2 208 41.3 34.8–48.1 0.0  
 ≥14 days 4 114 81.5 57.9–96.7 81.8  
Tracheotomy       
 Yes 12 663 55.6 38.2–72.4 94.5 0.002
 No 5 448 25.0 17.6–33.2 71.8  
Re-intubation       
 Yes 4 209 54.6 43.9–65.2 45.9 <0.001
 No 4 1233 15.7 9.9–22.5 82.4  
  1. CI confidence interval
  2. aPooled estimates were calculated by a random-effects model
  3. bThe Q test for heterogeneity was used to compare the incidence across subgroups
  4. cStudies that reported the cumulative incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia