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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the 81,081 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed from 2004 to 2009

From: Treatment delay and fatal outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in advanced age: a retrospective nationwide cohort study

Age (years) 20–64 N = 40,261 65–79 N = 26,897 80 and above N = 13,923
Male 26,377 (65.5%) 19,935 (74.1%)* 9855 (70.8%)*,†
Pre-DOTS era (2004–2005) 14,694 (36.5%) 10,030 (37.3%)* 4189 (30.1%)*,†
DOTS era (2006–2009) 25,567 (63.5%) 16,867 (62.7%)* 9734 (69.9%)*,†
Comorbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 9148 (22.7%) 9606 (35.7%)* 4248 (30.5%)*,†
 COPD 950 (2.4%) 3114 (11.6%)* 2568 (18.4%)*,†
 Malignancy 2242 (5.6%) 3239 (12.0%)* 1583 (11.4%)*,†
 ESRD 786 (2.0%) 882 (3.3%)* 241 (1.7%)
 Autoimmune disease 435 (1.1%) 306 (1.1%) 78 (0.6%)*,†
 Liver cirrhosis 316 (0.8%) 99 (0.4%)* 35 (0.3%)*
 Pneumoconiosis 12 (0.0%) 44 (0.2%)* 10 (0.1%)*,†
 AIDS 404 (1.0%) 36 (0.1%)* 9 (0.1%)*
 Transplantation 100 (0.25%) 24 (0.06%)* 0*,†
Low income status 1657 (4.1%) 838 (3.1%)* 373 (2.7%)*,†
Diagnostic procedures during the last 2 months before anti-TB treatment
 Bronchoscopy 3857 (9.6%) 3010 (11.2%)* 1136 (8.2%)*,†
 CT scan 13,504 (33.5%) 11,255 (41.8%)* 5828 (41.9%)*
 CT-guided biopsy 702 (1.7%) 546 (2.0%)* 156 (1.1%)*,†
Healthcare system factors of initial visits
 Hospital accreditation level   * *,†
  Medical centers 5525 (13.7%) 3985 (14.8%) 2256 (16.2%)
  Regional hospitals 14,657 (36.4%) 10,392 (38.6%) 6545 (47.0%)
  Local hospitals or clinics 20,079 (49.9%) 12,520 (46.5%) 5122 (36.8%)
 In urban area 30,862 (76.7%) 18,583 (69.1%)* 10,199 (73.3%)*,†
Pulmonologists or infection specialists 7170 (17.8%) 4255 (15.8%)* 2677 (19.2%)*,†
Baseline TB severity
 Extrapulmonary involvement 4317 (10.7%) 2531 (9.4%)* 846 (6.3%)*,†
 Second-line anti-TB drugs ≥14 days 5695 (14.1%) 5245 (19.5%)* 2951 (21.2%)*,†
Within 14 days of commencing anti-TB treatment
 Hospitalisation 17,946 (44.6%) 15,038 (55.9%)* 9288 (66.7%)*,†
  Admission to intensive care units 2337 (5.8%) 3353 (12.5%)* 2826 (20.3%)*,†
  Invasive ventilatory support 1886 (4.7%) 3065 (11.4%)* 2797 (20.1%)*,†
  Non-invasive ventilatory support 290 (0.7%) 533 (2.0%)* 478 (3.4%)*,†
Duration of anti-TB treatment (day) 212 (185–281) 204 (181–277)* 189 (127–260)*,†
 Treated with isoniazid 188 (152–259) 184 (86–246)* 159 (41–209)*,†
 Treated with rifamycin 191 (171–259) 185 (141–243)* 167 (50–210)*,†
 Treated with ethambutol 176 (144–240) 169 (75–214)* 138 (39–189)*,†
 Treated with pyrazinamide 63 (49–87) 58 (28–81)* 49 (7–70)*,†
Intensive phase (first 2 months)
 Treated with isoniazid (day) 60 (53–60) 59 (42–60)* 53 (19–60)*,†
 Treated with rifamycin (day) 58 (50–60) 54 (42–60)* 49 (26–58)*,†
 Treated with ethambutol (day) 57 (51–58) 54 (38–58)* 49 (21–57)*,†
 Treated with pyrazinamide (day) 54 (41–60) 47 (19–57)* 36 (3–53)*,†
Anti-TB treatment outcome at one year
 Completed 31,756 (78.9%) 18,377 (68.3%)* 7623 (54.8%)*,†
 Died 2602 (6.5%) 4978 (18.5%)* 4831 (34.7%)*,†
 Died within 2 months 1145 (2.8%) 1926 (7.2%)* 1944 (14.0%)*,†
  1. Abbreviations: AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CT computerised tomography, DOTS directly observed treatment, short course, ESRD end-stage renal disease
  2. Data are expressed as the median (1st–3rd quartiles) or number (%) as appropriate
  3. *P-value <0.05 compared against the group with age of 20–64 years. P-value <0.05 compared against the group with age of 65–79 years