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Table 3 Associations between variables and HSV2 seropositivity in women, Germany 2008–2011

From: Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control

Variables N Weighteda prevalence % (95% CI) Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
PRb (95% CI) p-value PRc (95% CI) p-value
Age group (years)
 18–24 227 2.0 (0.8–4.8) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 25–34 277 7.6 (4.5–12.5) 3.9 (1.4–11.1) 0.012 3.5 (1.2–10.4) 0.021
 35–44 405 11.5 (7.9–16.4) 5.9 (2.3–15.2) 0.000 5.6 (2.1–14.7) 0.001
 45–54 535 16.1 (12.8–20.0) 8.2 (3.2–21.2) 0.000 7.3 (2.7–19.5) 0.000
 55–64 461 15.5 (12.0–19.8) 7.9 (3.3–18.9) 0.000 8.0 (3.1–20.5) 0.000
 65+ 680 12.3 (9.4–15.6) 6.3 (2.4–16.3) 0.000 6.5 (2.5–17.0) 0.000
CASMIN educational classification
 Low 841 10.5 (8.2–13.3) 1.2 (0.7–1.8) 0.522
 Medium 1335 12.6 (10.6–15.0) 1.4 (0.9-2.1) 0.131
 High 392 9.1 (6.3–13.0) Ref Ref
Income
 Low 750 10.8 (8.2–14.1) Ref Ref
 Medium 1529 11.7 (9.8–13.8) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.652
 High 306 14.5 (10.2–20.2) 1.3 (0.9–2.1) 0.204
Employment situation
 Worker 623 12.4 (9.6–16.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.3) 0.884
 Employee 1174 12.7 (10.5–15.4) Ref Ref
 Civil servant 128 14.5 (8.6–23.4) 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 0.623
 Free-lance/self-reliant 174 13.2 (8.3–20.5) 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 0.874
 Family worker 47 5.3 (1.4–18.8) 0.4 (0.1–1.6) 0.202
 Other 96 4.0 (1.4–10.8) 0.3 (0.1–0.9) 0.033
Smoking, currently
 Daily 486 15.2 (11.8–19.2) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 0.006 1.6 (1.0–2.4) 0.033
 Occasionally 133 8.7 (4.9–15.1) 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.673 1.1 (0.5–2.3) 0.847
 No, not anymore 607 13.4 (10.6–16.5) 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 0.031 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 0.226
 Never smoked 1345 9.9 (8.1–12.0) Ref Ref Ref Ref
Number of other children in household during childhood
 0 272 12.5 (8.2–18.6) Ref Ref
 1–2 1125 9.6 (8.0–11.6) 0.8 (0.5–1.2) 0.221
  > 2 1188 13.6 (11.1–16.5) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.728
Visit of nursery during childhood
 No 614 14.5 (11.7–17.8) 1.5 (1.1–2.0) 0.008
 Yes 1264 9.7 (7.8–12.0) Ref Ref
HSV1 serostatus
 HSV1 seronegative 431 7.3 (4.8–11.1) Ref Ref
 HSV1 seropositive 2154 12.6 (10.9–14.5) 1.7 (1.1–2.7) 0.017
Degree of urbanization
 Rural 424 9.6 (6.2–14.6) Ref Ref
 Provincial 651 11.3 (8.5–14.7) 1.2 (0.7–2.0) 0.539
 Urban 792 10.1 (8.0–12.7) 1.1 (0.6–1.7) 0.835
 Metropolitan 718 14.4 (11.7–17.7) 1.5 (0.9-2.4) 0.095
Region of residence
 West Germany 1778 10.8 (9.2–12.7) Ref Ref
 East Germany (including Berlin) 807 14.6 (11.5–18.4) 1.3 (1.0–1.8) 0.037
German mother tongue
 Yes 2390 11.5 (9.9–13.3) Ref Ref
 No 172 10.9 (6.9–16.8) 0.9 (0.8–1.5) 0.825
Number of sexual partners in last 12 months
 None 788 12.7 (10.2–15.7) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) 0.500
 1 1588 11.5 (9.6–13.7) Ref Ref
 2–3 116 12.0 (5.3–24.8) 1.0 (0.5–2.3) 0.917
  > 3 17 10.3 (1.4–49.0) 0.9 (0.1–6.2) 0.912
Current use of birth control methodsd
 Yes 740 8.5 (6.3–11.3) Ref Ref
 No 1140 14.1 (12.0–16.6) 1.7 (1.2–2.3) 0.003
Which birth control method
 -Contraceptive Pill
  Yes 363 7.0 (4.4–10.8) Ref Ref
  No 353 9.6 (6.5–14.0) 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 0.264
 -Condoms
  Yes 217 8.0 (4.7–13.4) Ref Ref
  No 499 8.4 (5.7–12.3) 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 0.892
Miscarriage
 None 1504 10.4 (8.5–12.6) Ref Ref
 1 or more 424 15.9 (12.1–20.6) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 0.009
Abortion
 None 1538 10.1 (8.4–12.2) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 1 or more 351 20.1 (15.3–25.9) 2.0 (1.4–2.7) 0.000 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 0.023
  1. In italics: PR is statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. aWe used survey weights to account for deviations of the survey sample from the sampling parameters (i.e. age, sex, region, urban/rural region, community size, citizenship and education)
  3. bIf a p-value was <0.2 in the univariable analysis, we included that variable in a stepwise forward variable selection to find a suitable multivariable model
  4. cAdjusted prevalence rates (PR) of variables which stayed in the final model (p-value ≤0.05) are reported
  5. dWomen older than 65 years of age were not asked about their current use of birth control methods