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Table 2 Associations between variables and HSV1 seropositivity in men, Germany 2008–2011

From: Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control

Variables N Weighteda prevalence % (95% CI) Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
PRb (95% CI) p-value PRc (95% CI) p-value
Age group (years)
 18–24 289 42.2 (35.8–48.9) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 25–34 364 64.5 (58.4–70.2) 1.5 (1.3–1.8) 0.000 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 0.000
 35–44 448 72.8 (67.1–77.9) 1.7 (1.5–2.0) 0.000 1.7 (1.4–2.0) 0.000
 45–54 627 81.2 (77.1–84.6) 1.9 (1.6–2.3) 0.000 1.9 (1.6–2.2) 0.000
 55–64 559 85.9 (81.8–89.2) 2.0 (1.7–2.4) 0.000 2.0 (1.7–2.3) 0.000
 65+ 899 90.6 (87.5–92.9) 2.1 (1.8–2.5) 0.000 1.9 (1.6–2.3) 0.000
CASMIN educational classification
 Low 1045 85.2 (82.2–87.7) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 0.000
 Medium 1407 69.7 (66.4–72.8) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.967 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.062
 High 714 69.8 (65.0–74.2) Ref Ref Ref Ref
Income
 Low 855 79.1 (75.6–82.2) Ref Ref
 Medium 1837 74.2 (71.6–76.6) 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.015
 High 494 72.3 (67.1–76.9) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.022
Employment situation
 Worker 1109 80.2 (77.0–83.0) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.004
 Employee 1033 73.2 (69.4–76.8) Ref Ref
 Civil servant 224 76.2 (68.3–82.6) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.462
 Free-lance/self-reliant 394 78.6 (72.0–84.0) 1.1 (1.0-1.2) 0.133
 Family worker 6 100.0   1.4 (1.3–1.4) 0.002
 Other 93 48.0 (35.7–60.5) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.000
Smoking, currently
 Daily 706 76.1 (72.0–79.8) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.040 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.060
 Occasionally 201 74.0 (65.4–81.1) 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.440 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.013
 No, not anymore 1181 79.5 (76.2–82.4) 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.000 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.985
 Never smoked 1081 70.6 (66.7–74.2) Ref Ref Ref Ref
Number of other children in household during childhood
 0 341 70.0 (63.5–75.7) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 1–2 1323 64.8 (61.7–67.7) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.127 0.9 (0.9–1.0) 0.184
  > 2 1522 88.1 (86.0–90.0) 1.3 (1.1–1.4) 0.000 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.039
Visit of nursery during childhood
 No 726 80.5 (76.8–83.7) Ref Ref
 Yes 152 67.1 (64.1–70.0) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000
Degree of urbanization
 Rural 636 77.2 (73.2–80.7) Ref Ref
 Provincial 799 77.3 (73.3–80.8) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.974
 Urban 866 72.8 (68.8–76.4) 0.9 (0.9-1.0) 0.105
 Metropolitan 885 75.3 (71.6–78.8) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.490
Region of residence
 West Germany 2151 74.6 (72.3–76.7) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 East Germany (including Berlin) 1035 78.4 (74.5–81.9) 1.1 (1.0-1.1) 0.075 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.003
German mother tongue
 Yes 2952 73.8 (71.7–75.8) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No 208 86.7 (79.6–91.6) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000
Number of sexual partners in last 12 months
 None 632 74.1 (68.6–78.9) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.414
 1 2113 76.4 (74.0–78.6) Ref Ref
 2–3 205 65.2 (57.1–72.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.0) 0.012
  > 3 98 68.8 (57.0–78.6) 0.9 (0.8-1.1) 0.193
HSV2 serostatus
 HSV2 seronegative 2221 74.8 (72.5–76.9) Ref Ref
 HSV2 seropositive 207 77.4 (69.6–83.6) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.472
Use of condoms
 Generally 398 59.3 (53.7–64.7) Ref Ref
 Occasionally 400 67.5 (61.6–73.0) 1.1 (1.0-1.3) 0.034
 No 1881 78.0 (77.3–82.4) 1.3 (1.2–1.5) 0.000
 N/a 372 79.1 (72.6–84.3) 1.3 (1.2–1.5) 0.000
  1. In italics: PR is statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. aWe used survey weights to account for deviations of the survey sample from the sampling parameters (i.e. age, sex, region, urban/rural region, community size, citizenship and education)
  3. bIf a p-value was <0.2 in the univariable analysis, we included that variable in a stepwise forward variable selection to find a suitable multivariable model
  4. cAdjusted prevalence rates (PR) of variables which stayed in the final model (p-value ≤0.05) are reported