Skip to main content

Table 1 Associations between variables and HSV1 seropositivity in women, Germany 2008–2011

From: Decreasing seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Germany leaves many people susceptible to genital infection: time to raise awareness and enhance control

Variables N Weighteda prevalence % (95% CI) Univariable Analysis Multivariable Analysis
PRb(95% CI) p-value PRc(95% CI) p-value
Age group (years)
 18–24 283 51.4 (45.3–57.5) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 25–34 400 70.4 (64.6–75.5) 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 0.000 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 0.057
 35–44 519 82.4 (77.9–86.1) 1.6 (1.4–1.8) 0.000 1.4 (1.2–1.6) 0.000
 45–54 714 86.5 (83.1–89.2) 1.7 (1.5–1.9) 0.000 1.4 (1.2–1.7) 0.000
 55–64 630 91.8 (88.7–94.1) 1.8 (1.6–2.0) 0.000 1.5 (1.3–1.8) 0.000
 65+ 895 93.1 (90.4–95.1) 1.8 (1.6–2.0) 0.000 1.6 (1.3–1.8) 0.000
CASMIN educational classification
 Low 1117 90.0 (87.6–91.9) 1.3 (1.2–1.4) 0.000 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000
 Medium 1772 79.3 (76.4–82.0) 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 0.000 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000
 High 531 68.8 (63.7–73.5) Ref Ref Ref Ref
Income
 Low 991 83.4 (80.1–86.2) Ref Ref
 Medium 2031 82.0 (79.7–84.2) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.481
 High 419 76.9 (70.6–82.2) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.066
Employment situation
 Worker 827 91.2 (88.5–93.4) 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.000 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.004
 Employee 1611 81.4 (78.5–83.9) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Civil servant 169 70.3 (60.5–78.5) 0.9 (0.8–1.0) 0.036 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.482
 Free-lance/self-reliant 233 84.9 (77.9–90.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.232 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.379
 Family worker 64 87.5 (75.2–94.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.201 1.0 (0.9–1.2) 0.551
 other 124 51.8 (40.9–62.5) 0.6 (0.5–0.8) 0.000 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.086
Smoking, currently
 Daily 643 84.2 (80.0–87.7) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.266 1.1 (1.0–1.1) 0.035
 Occasionally 179 75.1 (67.2–81.6) 0.9 (0.8-1.0) 0.090 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.023
 No, not anymore 825 82.1 (77.7–85.7) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.841 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.898
 Never smoked 1776 81.6 (79.1–83.9) Ref Ref Ref Ref
Number of other children in household during childhood
 0 369 76.6 (70.6–81.7) Ref Ref
 1–2 1478 74.9 (71.9–77.7) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.579
  > 2 1594 90.6 (88.5–92.3) 1.2 (1.1–1.3) 0.000
Visit of nursery during childhood
 No 801 87.9 (84.4–90.7) 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 0.000
 Yes 1705 74.8 (71.9–77.5) Ref Ref
Degree of urbanization
 Rural 607 83.8 (78.3–88.2) Ref Ref
 Provincial 844 84.0 (80.1–87.3) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.956
 Urban 963 80.2 (76.3–83.6) 1.0 (0.8–1.0) 0.238
 Metropolitan 1027 81.1 (77.7–84.0) 1.0 (0.9–1.0) 0.347
Region of residence
 West Germany 2350 81.2 (78.9–83.2) Ref Ref
 East Germany (including Berlin) 1091 85.0 (81.4–88.0) 1.0 (1.0-1.1) 0.052
German mother tongue
 Yes 3170 81.0 (78.9–83.0) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No 242 88.4 (82.2–92.6) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.000 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.000
Number of sexual partners in last 12 months
 None 1051 85.4 (82.3–88.0) 1.0 (1.0–1.1) 0.043
 1 2110 81.5 (78.9–83.9) Ref Ref
 2–3 153 62.3 (53.1–70.7) 0.8 (0.7–0.9) 0.001
  > 3 24 76.6 (49.1–91.8) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.668
HSV2 serostatus
 HSV2 seronegative 2262 81.6 (79.1–83.8) Ref Ref
 HSV2 seropositive 323 88.9 (83.7–92.6) 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 0.004
Current use of birth control methods
 Yes 978 72.0 (68.5–75.3) Ref Ref
 No 1523 84.1 (81.6–86.3) 1.2 (1.1–1.2) 0.000
Which birth control method
 -Contraceptive pill
  Yes 470 67.2 (62.1–72.0) Ref Ref
  No 478 77.1 (72.1–81.5) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.005
 -Condoms
  Yes 287 71.8 (65.3–77.6) Ref Ref
  No 661 72.3 (67.9–76.4) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 0.891
Miscarriage
 None 2008 77.1 (74.5–79.5) Ref Ref
 1 or more 549 88.3 (83.8–91.6) 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.000
Abortion
 None 2047 77.3 (74.8–79.7) Ref Ref
 1 or more 471 88.5 (84.0–91.9) 1.1 (1.1–1.2) 0.000
  1. In italics: PR is statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. aWe used survey weights to account for deviations of the survey sample from the sampling parameters (i.e. age, sex, region, urban/rural region, community size, citizenship and education)
  3. bIf a p-value was <0.2 in the univariable analysis, we included that variable in a stepwise forward variable selection to find a suitable multivariable model
  4. cAdjusted prevalence rates (PR) of variables which stayed in the final model (p-value ≤0.05) are reported