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Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies

From: Clinical failure with and without empiric atypical bacteria coverage in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study Period; Publication Year Design Location Funding Source Enrolled Patientsa; ITT Age (years) PNA Characteristics Antibiotic Regimena Duration of Therapy (days) Outcomes Definitions
Grain et al. 2009–2013; 2014 Non-inferiority open-label, RCT 6 sites in 1 country (Switzerland) Non-industry 602; 580 (289 vs. 291) 76 (median) Moderately severe PNA BL (IV cefuroxime 1.5 G X 3/d or IV amoxicillin/ clavulanate 1.2 G X 4/d) vs BL + ML (IV/PO clarithromycin 500 mg X 2/d) 10 Mortality = 30-day. Failure = no clinical stability at day 7
Petitpretz et al. 1997–1998; 2001 Superiority, double-blind, RCT 82 sites in 20 countries (Europe, South America, Australia, Africa) Non-industry 411; 408 (200 vs. 208) 51 (mean) Mild-moderate PNA; suspected pneumococcal PNA; 79% hospitalized/21% outpatients BL (PO amoxicillin 1 G X 3/d) vs FQ (PO moxifloxacin 400 mg X 1/d) 10 Mortality = during the study (38-day). Failure = no clinical/bacteriological response 3–5 days after end of therapy
Norrby et al. Not reported; 1998 Superiority, open-label, RCT 64 sites in 13 countries (Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia) Industry 625; 619 (314 vs. 305) 65 (median) Moderately severe PNA; excluded strongly suspected mycoplasma, chlamydia or legionella PNA; 94% CAP and 6% nosocomial PNA BL (IV ceftriaxone 4 G X 1/d) vs FQ (IV levofloxacin 500 mg X 2/d, followed by PO levofloxacin 500 mg X 2/d) 8 Mortality = during the study (29-day). Failure = no clinical/bacteriological response 2–5 days after end of therapy
Leophonte et al. 1998–1999; 2004 Superiority, double-blind, RCT 102 sites in 3 countries (Europe, Africa) Non-industry 324; 320 (167 vs. 153) 54 (mean) Mild-moderate PNA; suspected pneumococcal PNA; 94% hospitalized BL (PO amoxicillin/ clavulanate 1.2 G X 3/d) vs FQ (PO gemifloxacin 320 mg X 1/d) 7 for FQ; 10 for B-lactam Mortality = during the study (30-day). Failure = no clinical/ bacteriological response at end of therapy
Kalbermatter et al. 1998; 2000 Superiority, open-label, RCT 1 site in 1 country (Argentina) Non-industry 84; 84 (28 vs. 56) 60 (mean) Mild-moderate PNA BL (IV ceftriaxone 1 G X 2/d or IV amoxicillin/ clavulanate 1.2 G X 3/d) vs FQ (PO levofloxacin 500 mg X 2/d) 7–10 if favorable response Failure = no clinical response at 72 h
  1. aatypical bacterial coverage arm vs non-atypical bacterial coverage arm. Abbreviations: PNA pneumonia, RCT randomized clinical trial, BL β-lactam, ML Macrolide, PO orally, IV intravenously, CAP community-acquired pneumonia