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Table 3 Results for the independent variable ‘private healthcare provision’ in Cox proportional hazard model analyses of various time periods between symptom onset, healthcare presentation, investigations and treatment commencement among adult Victorian TB adult patients, 2002–2015

From: Comparing tuberculosis management under public and private healthcare providers: Victoria, Australia, 20022015

Time period outcome Private sample Private healthcare provision Public healthcare provision Results of Cox regression analysis with inclusion of private healthcare as binary exposure variable
Multivariate survival analysisa
Median (IQR) (days) Median (IQR) (days) Number of obs HR (95%CI) P value Other independent variables
Patients with pulmonary involvement
 Health system delay cx sp 59 40 (17–90) 22 (6–52) 1399 0.81 (0.58–1.12) 0.195 a sx pe p h o r
 Diagnostic delay - presentation to first chest x-ray/CT scan 35 29 (5–59) 9 (0–32) 1216 0.84 (0.60–1.18) 0.307 sx pe r p h o y
 Treatment initiation delay 1 sp 83 19 (7–64) 10 (3–34) 1409 1.35 (0.82–2.21) 0.235 a p s c h o y sp. h#p a#o a#sp. (this interaction term contained no smear positive in the youngest age-group)
Extrapulmonary patients
 Health system delay cx 143 61 (25–99) 46 (20–91) 1504 NA sx e f‡ c‡ y‡ cx cx#m‡
 Diagnostic delay - presentation to first chest x-ray/CT scan 81 54 (19–93) 27 (6–65) 1080 0.79 (0.63–0.99) 0.043 s‡ sx p‡ y‡
All patients
 Patient delayb 39 1 (0–28) 18 (0–68) 871 1.36 (1.02–2.00) 0.065 sx pe ly e d p c o
 Laboratory delay - specimen collection to culture resultc 53 43 (40–53) 43 (35–52) 1380 0.90 (0.68–1.20) 0.474 sx pe ly‡ e‡ d‡ r s‡ p c o c#sx‡ sx#o‡
 Treatment initiation delay 2 60 10 (5–25) 11 (3–21) 577 NA a sx y‡ sm‡
  1. Definition of abbreviations: TB tuberculosis, NA not applicable, private p > 0.25 in univariate analysis, obs observations, IQR interquartile range, HR hazard ratio, # interaction operator
  2. aVariables considered in univariate analysis – age (a) (five groups: 0–9 years; 10–17 years; 18–34 years; 35–64 years, ≥65 years); sex (sx); manifestation (m) (categories: pulmonary only, pulmonary plus other sites [pe], lymph node [ly], disseminated [d] or other extrapulmonary [e]); saw rural health provider (r); saw private health provider (p); has a history of substance abuse (s); has ever resided in an aged care facility (f); household member or close contact with TB (c); born in high burden country (h); overseas born (o); year of notification (y) (groups: 2002–2005; 2006–2011; 2012–2015);. First CXR results (cx) and sputum smear results (sp) and smear results (sm) were also considered where noted
  3. bPatient delay could only be considered from 2012 to 2015 due to small sample numbers in prior years.
  4. cLaboratory delay could only be considered from 2011 to 2015 due to year of notification variable not being proportional
  5. Independent variables included in multivariate analyses with p<0.05