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Table 2 Comparison between the vancomycin MICs with patient’s demographics, clinical diagnosis and genotypic characteristics of MRSA in 2011 and 2012

From: Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and the molecular characteristics of MRSA bacteraemia over a two-year period in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia

  Vancomycin MIC
< 1.5 μg/mL ≥ 1.5 μg/mL P value
2011 2012 Total 2011 2012 Total
N = 58 (%) N = 48 (%) N = 106 (%) N = 37 (%) N = 66 (%) N = 103 (%)
Age
 ≤ 50 years old 26 (44.8) 8 (16.7) 34 (32.1) 13 (35.1) 19 (28.8) 32 (31.1) 0.883
 > 50 years old 29 (50) 40 (83.3) 69 (65.1) 23 (62.2) 46 (69.7) 69 (66.9) 0.884
 Not Known 3 (5.2) 0 (0) 3 (2.8) 1 (2.7) 1 (1.5) 2 (1.9)  
Gender
 Female 18 (31) 22 (45.8) 40 (37.7) 12 (32.4) 22 (33.3) 34 (33) 0.563
 Male 38 (65.5) 26 (54.2) 64 (60.4) 24 (64.9) 44 (66.7) 68 (66) 0.474
 Not Known 2 (3.4) 0 (0) 2 (1.9) 1 (2.7) 0 (0) 1 (0.9)  
Clinical diagnosis
 Bacteraemia 25 (43.1) 24 (50) 49 (46.2) 15 (40.5) 27 (40.9) 42 (40.8) 0.486
 Skin and soft tissue infections 26 (44.8) 20 (41.7) 46 (43.4) 20 (54.1) 31 46.9) 51 (49.5) 0.407
 Osteomyelitis or septic arthritis 3 (5.2) 3 (6.3) 6 (5.7) 2 (5.4) 7 (10.6) 9 (8.7) 0.432
 Meningitis 3 (5.2) 0 (0) 3 (2.8) 0 (0) 1 (1.5) 1 (0.9) 0.622
 Pericarditis 1 (1.7) 1 (2.1) 2 (1.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.498
Co-morbidities
 Diabetes mellitus 12 (20.7) 27 (56.3) 39 (36.8) 12 (32.4) 25 (37.9) 37 (35.9) 1.000
 Hypoglycaemia 1 (1.7) 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 Hypertension 12 (20.7) 24 (50) 36 (33.9) 11 (29.7) 23 (34.8) 34 (33) 1.000
 Obesity 0 (0) 1 (2.1) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 Chronic kidney disease and UTI 9 (15.5) 19 (39.6) 28 (26.4) 5 (13.5) 25 (37.9) 30 (29.1) 0.758
 Cancer 8 (13.8) 6 (12.5) 14 (13.2) 3 (8.1) 2 (3) 5 (4.9) 0.052
 Head injury 3 (5.2) 10 (20.8) 13 (12.3) 6 (16.2) 10 (15.2) 16 (15.5) 0.552
 Liver disease 1 (1.7) 5 (10.4) 6 (5.7) 0 (0) 2 (3) 2 (1.9) 0.280
 Respiratory disease 7 (12.1) 9 (18.8) 16 (15.1) 3 (8.1) 10 (15.2) 13 (12.6) 0.691
 Cardiovascular disease 6 (10.3) 11 (22.9) 17 (16) 2 (5.4) 8 (12.1) 10 (9.7) 0.217
 Gastrointestinal disease 2 (3.4) 3 (6.3) 5 (4.7) 0 (0) 2 (3) 2 (1.9) 0.446
 Autoimmune disease 1 (1.7) 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 Bone and joint disorder 3 (5.2) 4 (8.3) 7 (6.6) 0 (0) 6 (9.1) 6 (5.8) 1.000
 Endocrine disorder 0 (0) 2 (4.2) 2 (1.9) 0 (0) 1 (1.5) 1 (0.9) 1.000
 Blood disorder 1 (1.7) 1 (2.1) 2 (1.9) 0 (0) 2 (3) 2 (1.9) 1.000
 CMV 0 (0) 1 (2.1) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1.000
 Skin disease 0 (0) 1 (2.1) 1 (0.9) 4 (10.8) 3 (4.5) 7 (6.8) 0.034
 None 3 (5.2) 4 (8.3) 7 (6.6) 0 (0) 4 (6.1) 4 (3.9) 0.538
 Not Known 24 (41.4) 2 (4.2) 26 (24.5) 12 (32.4) 8 (12.1) 20 (19.4) 0.407
SCCmec types
 SCCmec II 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (5.4) 0 (0) 2 (1.9) 0.242
 SCCmec III 32 (55.2) 21 (43.8) 53 (50) 29 (78.4) 57 (86.4) 86 (83.5) 0.0001
 SCCmec IV
  SCCmec IVa 4 (6.9) 3 (6.3) 7 (6.6) 1 (2.7) 1 (1.5) 2 (1.9) 0.171
  SCCmec IVb 5 (8.6) 0 (0) 5 (4.7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.060
   Novel subtypes 13 (22.4) 23 (47.9) 36 (33.9) 2 (5.4) 7 (10.6) 9 (8.7) 0.0001
  SCCmec V 3 (5.2) 1 (2.1) 4 (3.8) 3 (8.1) 0 (0) 3 (2.9) 1.000
  Untypeable 1 (1.7) 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 1 (1.5) 1 (0.9) 1.000
  1. UTI = Urinary Tract Infection, CMV = Cytomegalovirus
  2. Head injury includes: basal ganglia bleed, subdural hematoma and stroke. Liver disease includes: alcoholic liver disease, liver cirrhosis. Respiratory disease includes: pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cardiovascular disease includes: mitral valve regurgitation, ischaemic heart disease, acute coronary syndrome, congestive cardiac failure. Gastrointestinal disease includes: acute gastroenteritis, Crohn’s disease, perforated diverticular disease, intestinal obstruction. Autoimmune disease includes: Systemic lupus erythematosus. Endocrine disorder includes: thyroid disease, primary hypothyroidism. Blood disorder includes: myelofibrosis, anaemia. Skin disease includes: Stevens Johnson Syndrome, Bullous pemphigoid, exfoliative dermatitis and pemphigus vulgaris
  3. Fisher’s exact test done for categorical variables, p value < 0.05 was considered to be statistical significant and are indicated by bold text