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Table 4 Characteristics of the cohort based on the receipt of inappropriate empiric treatment

From: Carbapenem resistance, inappropriate empiric treatment and outcomes among patients hospitalized with Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infection, pneumonia and sepsis

  Non-IET % IET % P-value
N = 32,710 N = 4984
Baseline characteristics
 Mean age, years (SD) 69.0 (16.0)   69.4 (15.3)   0.094
 Gender: male 13,680 41.8% 2169 43.5% 0.024
 Race
  White 23,921 73.1% 3443 69.1% <0.001
  Black 4384 13.4% 862 17.3%
  Hispanic 919 2.8% 163 3.3%
  Other 3486 10.7% 516 10.4%
 Admission Source
  Non-healthcare facility (including from home) 21,450 65.6% 3034 60.9% <0.001
  Clinic 1093 3.3% 138 2.8%
  Transfer from ECF 2996 9.2% 759 15.2%
  Transfer from another non-acute care facility 379 1.2% 77 1.5%
  Emergency Department 6688 20.4% 959 19.2%
  Other 104 0.3% 17 0.3%
 Elixhauser Comorbidities
  Congestive heart failure 7836 24.0% 1509 30.3% <0.001
  Valvular disease 2594 7.9% 425 8.5% 0.148
  Pulmonary circulation disease 1912 5.8% 358 7.2% <0.001
  Peripheral vascular disease 3564 10.9% 577 11.6% 0.152
  Paralysis 3289 10.1% 770 15.4% <0.001
  Other neurological disorders 7227 22.1% 1269 25.5% <0.001
  Chronic pulmonary disease 9079 27.8% 1663 33.4% <0.001
  Diabetes without chronic complications 9695 29.6% 1623 32.6% <0.001
  Diabetes with chronic complications 3152 9.6% 524 10.5% 0.052
  Hypothyroidism 5645 17.3% 942 18.9% 0.004
  Renal failure 9024 27.6% 1540 30.9% <0.001
  Liver disease 1774 5.4% 245 4.9% 0.138
  Peptic ulcer disease with bleeding 15 0.0% 2 0.0% 1.000
  AIDS 8 0.0% 4 0.1% 0.063
  Lymphoma 508 1.6% 74 1.5% 0.716
  Metastatic cancer 1543 4.7% 182 3.7% 0.001
  Solid tumor without metastasis 1335 4.1% 163 3.3% 0.006
  Rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular 1422 4.3% 215 4.3% 0.914
  Coagulopathy 4626 14.1% 540 10.8% <0.001
  Obesity 5079 15.5% 822 16.5% 0.081
  Weight loss 5583 17.1% 1117 22.4% <0.001
  Fluid and electrolyte disorders 17,961 54.9% 2702 54.2% 0.357
  Chronic blood loss anemia 459 1.4% 79 1.6% 0.313
  Deficiency Anemia 12,735 38.9% 2096 42.1% <0.001
  Alcohol abuse 1139 3.5% 163 3.3% 0.446
  Drug abuse 789 2.4% 103 2.1% 0.135
  Psychosis 1979 6.1% 294 5.9% 0.676
  Depression 4859 14.9% 806 16.2% 0.018
  Hypertension 20,987 64.2% 3154 63.3% 0.229
 Charlson Comoribidity Score
  0 10,353 31.7% 1239 24.9% <0.001
  1 6517 19.9% 1072 21.5%
  2 6595 20.2% 1047 21.0%
  3 4223 12.9% 757 15.2%
  4 2400 7.3% 465 9.3%
  5+ 2622 8.0% 404 8.1%
  Mean (SD) 1.9 (2.1)   2.0 (2.0)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] 1 [0, 3]   2 [1 3]   <0.001
Infection characteristics and treatment
 Infection characteristics
  Sepsis 10,736 32.8% 1468 29.5% <0.001
  Pneumonia 3936 12.0% 995 20.0%
  UTI 18,038 55.1% 2521 50.6%
  HCA 11,413 34.9% 2221 44.6% <0.001
  CRE 513 1.6% 648 13.0% <0.001
 Illness severity
  ICU admission 13,524 41.3% 2074 41.6% 0.720
  Mechanical ventilation 5064 15.5% 1062 21.3% <0.001
  Vasopressors 4929 15.1% 709 14.2% 0.111
 Antibiotics administered
  Aminoglycosides 3694 11.3% 351 7.0% <0.001
  Antipseudomonal penicillins 6199 19.0% 347 7.0% <0.001
  Antipseudomonal floroquinolones 15,995 48.9% 2480 49.8% 0.258
  Antipseudomonal penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors 16,874 51.6% 2008 40.3% <0.001
  Extended spectrum cephalosporins 12,174 37.2% 1134 22.8% <0.001
  Folate pathway inhibitors 225 0.7% 36 0.7% 0.809
  Penicillins with beta-lacatamase inhibitors 681 2.1% 147 2.9% 0.005
  Polymyxins 102 0.3% 32 0.6% <0.001
  Tetracyclines 210 0.6% 15 0.3% 0.004
  Tigecycline 485 1.5% 110 2.2% <0.001
  Aztreonam 1319 4.0% 258 5.2% <0.001
Hospital Characteristics
 Area
  Midwest 8848 27.0% 1133 22.7% <0.001
  Northeast 4397 13.4% 950 19.1%
  South 13,579 41.5% 1951 39.1%
  West 5886 18.0% 950 19.1%
 Number of Beds
   < 200 5597 17.1% 744 14.9% <0.001
  200 to 299 7508 23.0% 1171 23.5%
  300 to 499 10,540 32.2% 1781 35.7%
  500+ 9065 27.7% 1288 25.8%
  Teaching 12,096 37.0% 1988 39.9% 0.217
  Urban 29,418 89.9% 4574 91.8% <0.001
Hospital outcomes
  Mortality 3234 9.9% 607 12.2% <0.001
  Mean (SD) LOS, days 9.0 (8.5)   14.7 (19.4)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] LOS, days 7 [4, 11]   9 [5, 16]   <0.001
  Mean (SD) costs, $ 20,227 (25,616)   33,216 (49,567)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] costs, $ 12,719 [7401, 23,275]   17,386 [9255, 35,625]   <0.001
Hospital outcomes stratified by infection type
 UTI
  Mortality 1548 8.6% 267 10.6% <0.001
  Mean (SD) LOS, days 8.5 (7.8)   13.3 (17.1)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] LOS, days 6 [4, 10]   9 [5, 15]   <0.001
  Mean (SD) costs, $ 18,103 (21,440)   28,069 (40,490)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] costs, $ 11,862 [7015, 21,222]   16,209 [8828, 31,535]   <0.001
 Sepsis
  Mortality 1356 12.6% 260 17.7% <0.001
  Mean (SD) LOS, days 9.9 (9.9)   18.9 (23.3)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] LOS, days 7 [4, 12]   12 [6, 22]   <0.001
  Mean (SD) costs, $ 24,532 (32,043)   47,881 (64,812)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] costs, $ 15,048 [8312, 28,558]   25,121 [12,382, 55,529]   <0.001
 Pneumonia
  Mortality 330 8.4% 80 8.0% 0.726
  Mean (SD) LOS, days 8.5 (7.6)   12.0 (17.6)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] LOS, days 7 [4, 10]   7 [4, 13]   <0.001
  Mean (SD) costs, $ 18,220 (21,710)   24,623 (38,753)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] costs, $ 11,742 [7125, 20,561]   13,040 [7393, 26,339]   <0.001
  1. IET inappropriate empiric therapy, SD standard deviation, ECF extended care facility, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, IQR interquartile range, HCA healthcare-associated, CSE carbapenem sensitive Enterobacteriaceae, CRE carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, UTI urinary tract infection, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range 25–75%