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Table 3 Infection characteristics, treatment and outcomes

From: Carbapenem resistance, inappropriate empiric treatment and outcomes among patients hospitalized with Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infection, pneumonia and sepsis

  CSE % CRE % P-value
N = 38,910 N = 1227
Infection characteristics
 Sepsis 12,726 32.7% 409 33.3% 0.039
 Pneumonia 5060 13.0% 187 15.2%
 UTI 21,124 54.3% 631 51.4%
 HCA 13,782 35.4% 718 58.5% <0.001
Illness severity measures by day 2
 ICU admission 15,876 40.8% 687 56.0% <0.001
 Mechanical ventilation 6092 15.7% 437 35.6% <0.001
 Vasopressors 5798 14.9% 205 16.7% 0.081
Antibiotics administered by day 2
 Aminoglycosides 3843 9.9% 242 19.7% <0.001
 Antipseudomonal penicillins 6403 16.5% 313 25.5% <0.001
 Antipseudomonal floroquinolones 18,468 47.5% 406 33.1% <0.001
 Antipseudomonal penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors 19,727 50.7% 617 50.3% 0.775
 Extended spectrum cephalosporins 13,327 34.3% 415 33.8% 0.755
 Folate pathway inhibitors 251 0.6% 12 1.0% 0.155
 Penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors 854 2.2% 26 2.1% 0.837
 Polymyxins 126 0.3% 24 2.0% <0.001
 Tetracyclines 248 0.6% 6 0.5% 0.519
 Tigecycline 586 1.5% 86 7.0% <0.001
 Aztreonam 1740 4.5% 56 4.6% 0.878
Empiric treatment appropriateness
 Non-IET 32,197 82.7% 513 41.8% <0.001
 IET 4336 11.1% 648 52.8%
 Indeterminate 2337 6.0% 66 5.4%
Hospital outcomes
 Mortality 3958 10.2% 178 14.5% <0.001
 Mean (SD) LOS, days 9.6 (10.7)   15.6 (17.4)   <0.001
 Median [IQR] LOS, days 7 [4, 11]   10 [6, 18]   <0.001
 Mean (SD) costs, $ 20,601 (29702)   38,494 (46,964)   <0.001
 Median [IQR] costs, $ 13,020 [7501, 24,237]   22,909 [12,988, 42,815]   <0.001
Hospital outcomes stratified by infection type
 UTI
  Mortality 1873 8.9% 78 12.4% 0.002
  Mean (SD) LOS, days 9.0 (9.4)   14.6 (15.9)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] LOS, days 7 [4, 11]   10 [6, 17]   <0.001
  Mean (SD) costs, $ 19,036 (24,494)   33,400 (37,662)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] costs, $ 12,082 [7104, 21,822]   21,154 [12,687, 39,374]   <0.001
 Sepsis
  Mortality 1660 13.0% 81 19.8% <0.001
  Mean (SD) LOS, days 10.9 (12.6)   18.0 (20.8)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] LOS, days 7 [4, 13]   11 [7, 21]   <0.001
  Mean (SD) costs, $ 26,793 (37,390)   50,038 (60,602)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] costs, $ 15,614 [8584, 30,317]   27,264 [14,581, 57,825]   <0.001
 Pneumonia
  Mortality 425 8.4% 19 10.2% 0.395
  Mean (SD) LOS, days 9.2 (10.4)   13.4 (13.0)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] LOS, days 7 [4, 10]   9 [6, 16]   <0.001
  Mean (SD) costs, $ 19,250 (25,743)   30,432 (35,089)   <0.001
  Median [IQR] costs, $ 11,826 [7076, 21,100]   19,820 [12,220, 35,713]   <0.001
  1. CSE carbapenem sensitive Enterobacteriaceae, CRE carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, UTI urinary tract infection, HCA healthcare-associated, ICU intensive care unit, IET inappropriate empiric therapy