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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Carbapenem resistance, inappropriate empiric treatment and outcomes among patients hospitalized with Enterobacteriaceae urinary tract infection, pneumonia and sepsis

  CSE % CRE % P-value
N = 38,910 N = 1227
Mean age, years (SD) 69.1 (15.9)   66.6 (15.3)   <0.001
Gender: male 16,273 41.8% 642 52.3% <0.001
Race
 White 28,295 72.7% 821 66.9% <0.001
 Black 5464 14.0% 242 19.7%
 Hispanic 1069 2.7% 32 2.6%
 Other 4082 10.5% 132 10.8%
Admission Source
 Non-healthcare facility (including from home) 25,559 65.7% 776 63.2% <0.001
 Clinic 1285 3.3% 27 2.2%
 Transfer from ECF 3697 9.5% 266 21.7%
 Transfer from another non-acute care facility 473 1.2% 22 1.8%
 Emergency Department 7766 20.0% 132 10.8%
 Other 130 0.3% 4 0.3%
Elixhauser Comorbidities
 Congestive heart failure 9623 24.7% 329 26.8% 0.096
 Valvular disease 3112 8.0% 96 7.8% 0.825
 Pulmonary circulation disease 2323 6.0% 93 7.6% 0.020
 Peripheral vascular disease 4285 11.0% 169 13.8% 0.002
 Paralysis 4085 10.5% 271 22.1% <0.001
 Other neurological disorders 8668 22.3% 348 28.4% <0.001
 Chronic pulmonary disease 11,035 28.4% 371 30.2% 0.151
 Diabetes without chronic complications 11,616 29.9% 420 34.2% 0.001
 Diabetes with chronic complications 3809 9.8% 141 11.5% 0.049
 Hypothyroidism 6764 17.4% 224 18.3% 0.428
 Renal failure 10,810 27.8% 446 36.3% <0.001
 Liver disease 2084 5.4% 65 5.3% 0.929
 Peptic ulcer disease with bleeding 17 0.0% 1 0.1% 0.428
 AIDS 12 0.0% 0 0.0% 1.000
 Lymphoma 604 1.6% 21 1.7% 0.657
 Metastatic cancer 1787 4.6% 40 3.3% 0.027
 Solid tumor without metastasis 1569 4.0% 34 2.8% 0.026
 Rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular 1721 4.4% 45 3.7% 0.204
 Coagulopathy 5350 13.7% 139 11.3% 0.015
 Obesity 6095 15.7% 191 15.6% 0.926
 Weight loss 6855 17.6% 340 27.7% <0.001
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders 21,332 54.8% 378 30.8% 0.764
 Chronic blood loss anemia 545 1.4% 24 2.0% 0.105
 Deficiency anemia 15,154 38.9% 598 48.7% <0.001
 Alcohol abuse 1367 3.5% 33 2.7% 0.122
 Drug abuse 923 2.4% 35 2.9% 0.278
 Psychosis 2358 6.1% 81 6.6% 0.435
 Depression 5854 15.0% 174 14.2% 0.404
 Hypertension 24,938 64.1% 781 63.7% 0.752
Charlson Comoribidity Score
 0 12,010 30.9% 334 27.2% <0.001
 1 7855 20.2% 230 18.7%
 2 7902 20.3% 244 19.9%
 3 5118 13.2% 180 14.7%
 4 2897 7.4% 146 11.9%
 5+ 3128 8.0% 93 7.6%
 Mean (SD) 1.9 (2.1)   2.0 (2.0)   0.009
 Median [IQR] 1 [0,3]   2 [0, 3]   <0.001
Hospital Characteristics
 Census region
  Midwest 10,531 27.1% 288 23.5% <0.001
  Northeast 5297 13.6% 336 27.4%
  South 16,203 41.6% 310 25.3%
  West 6879 17.7% 293 23.9%
Number of Beds
  < 200 6589 16.9% 192 15.6% <0.001
 200 to 299 8779 22.6% 338 27.5%
 300 to 499 12,691 32.6% 421 34.3%
 500+ 10,851 27.9% 276 22.5%
 Teaching 14,609 37.5% 566 46.1% <0.001
 Urban 35,079 90.2% 1167 95.1% <0.001
  1. CSE carbapenem sensitive Enterobacteriaceae, CRE carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae, SD standard deviation, ECF extended care facility, AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome, IQR interquartile range