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Table 4 Association of variables with change in absolute creatinine over 72 h in patients with severe malaria

From: Cell-free hemoglobin mediated oxidative stress is associated with acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in severe falciparum malaria: an observational study

  Univariable analysis Multivariable F2-IsoP model Multivariable IsoF model
Variable β (95% CI)a P β (95% CI)a P β (95% CI)a P
Log CFH§ 0.27 (−0.19 to 0.74) 0.249 --- --- --- ---
Log F2-IsoP# 2.35 (1.27 to 3.43) <0.001 3.01 (1.92 to 4.12) <0.001 --- ---
Log IsoF 2.06 (1.46 to 2.65) <0.001 --- --- 1.83 (1.26 to 2.40) <0.001
LogPfHRP2 0.61 (0.25 to 0.98) 0.001 0.70 (0.02 to 1.38) 0.045 0.69 (0.05 to 1.32) 0.034
RCD at SS 1.69 Pa −1.67 (−14.93 to 11.59) 0.805 --- --- --- ---
RCD at SS 9.49 Pa −6.42 (−15.10 to 2.26) 0.147 −4.26 (−7.86 to −0.67) 0.020 −2.46 (−5.92 to 1.00) 0.163
Age 0.01 (−0.03 to 0.05) 0.624 --- --- --- ---
SBP 0.03 (−0.01 to 0.06) 0.094    --- ---
Visit (time) 0.65 (0.52 to 0.78) <0.001 --- --- --- ---
Log CFH × Log F2-IsoP 0.31 (−0.19 to 0.86) 0.221 --- --- --- ---
Log CFH × Log IsoF 0.62 (0.27 to 0.98) 0.001 --- --- --- ---
Log F2-IsoP × visit 0.85 (0.55 to 1.14) <0.001 --- --- --- ---
Log IsoF × visit 0.62 (0.47 to 0.76) <0.001 --- --- --- ---
Log CFH × visit 0.10 (−0.10 to 0.21) 0.076 0.21 (0.05 to 0.36) 0.010 0.20 (0.04 to 0.36) 0.012
  1. aRegression coefficient (β) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) showing the estimated decrease in creatinine predicted by a 1-U change in the independent (predictor) variables. Interaction terms improved the model fit. Abbreviations: CFH cell free hemoglobin, F 2 -IsoP plasma F2-isoprostanes, IsoF plasma isofurans, CFH × F 2 -IsoP cell-free hemoglobin and plasma F2-isoprostane interaction term, CFH × IsoF cell-free hemoglobin and plasma isofuran interaction term, PfHRP2 P. falciparum histidine rich protein 2, RCD red cell deformability at shear stress 1.69 and 9.49 Pa. # Plasma IsoFs collinear with plasma F2- IsoPs. P-values in italics denote statistical significance