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Table 2 Baseline admission laboratory parameters of patients with severe falciparum malaria by AKI status at enrolment

From: Cell-free hemoglobin mediated oxidative stress is associated with acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in severe falciparum malaria: an observational study

Variable Total No AKI AKI P
  (n = 107) n (n = 45) n (n = 62) n  
 Hemoglobin (mg/dl) 9.1 (7.2–11.0) 107 10.6 (8.0–11.3) 45 8.5 (7.1–10.3) 62 0.017
 Cell-free hemoglobin (μM)b 7.0 (5.5–8.7) 105 5.1 (4.0–6.6) 45 8.8 (6.2–12.3) 60 0.018
 White blood cells (×103/μl) 9.4 (6.7–12.8) 102 9.2 (6.4–11.7) 44 9.6 (7.0–16.6) 58 0.339
 Platelets (×103/μl) 30 (19–46) 100 35 (23–53) 44 27 (18–42) 56 0.075
 Total bilirubin (mg/dl) 2.0 (1.0–5.3) 106 1.5 (0.9–3.2) 45 2.5 (1.3–10.7) 61 0.005
 Indirect bilirubin (mg/dl) 0.8 (0.3–1.9) 106 0.4 (0.2–1.3) 45 1.3 (0.4–2.7) 61 0.013
 Lactate dehydrogenase (U/l) 635 (455–886) 107 541(403–643) 45 766 (566–1027) 62 <0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.4 (1.1–3.3) 107 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 45 3.0 (1.6–4.4) 62 <0.001
 Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl) 43 (26–75) 107 26 (18–37) 45 66 (44–104) 62 <0.001
 Potassium (mmol/l) 4.4 (3.9–5.2) 106 4.1 (3.8–4.6) 45 4.7 (4.1–5.5) 61 <0.001
 Base excess (mmol/l) −8 (−11 to −4) 107 −5 (−7 to −2) 45 −10 (−13 to −7) 62 <0.001
 Bicarbonate (mmol/l) 17.3 (14.1–20.2) 107 19.2 (17.0–21.9) 45 15.9 (13.3–18.6) 62 <0.001
 Lactate (mmol/l) 3.85 (2.49–6.28) 107 3.85 (2.58–5.61) 45 3.89 (2.30–6.68) 62 0.852
 Parasitemia (parasites/μl)b 53,529 (34586–82,846) 107 61,253 (34094–110,048) 45 48,540 (25716–91,619) 62 0.605
 PfHRP2 (ng/ml) 2584 (1341–7194) 101 1743.8 (1090–3159) 45 3996 (1737–12,382) 56 <0.001
Urinary indices
 Urine protein:creatinine 0.81 (0.42–1.11) 81 0.81 (0.52–1.15) 34 0.81 (0.41–1.11) 47 0.867
 Urine albumin:creatinine 9.52 (5.49–19.12) 65 9.52 (5.69–19.12) 25 9.76 (5.19–19.49) 40 0.861
 pH 5 (5–6) 98 6 (5–6) 42 5 (5–6) 56 <0.001
 FeNa (%)c 0.67 (0.37–1.35) 94 0.57 (0.22–0.91) 40 0.94 (0.47–2.44) 54 0.012
Oxidative stress markers
 Plasma F2-IsoPs (pg/ml)b 41.1 (34.8–48.5) 64 27.8 (23.7–32.7) 29 56.7 (45.3–70.9) 35 <0.001
 Plasma IsoFs (pg/ml)b 70.6 (56.2–88.7) 64 41.7 (30.2–57.6) 29 109.2 (85.1–140.1) 35 <0.001
  1. All values are median (IQR) unless otherwise specified: bgeometric mean (95% CI), cnumber (%). P < 0.05 using student t-test, Mann U Whitney or Fischer’s exact tests; significant in bold. Abbreviations: AKI acute kidney injury, PfHRP2 P falciparum histidine rich protein 2, FeNa fractional excretion of sodium, F 2 -IsoPs plasma F2-isoprostanes, IsoFs plasma isofurans