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Table 1 Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with severe falciparum malaria by AKI status at enrolment

From: Cell-free hemoglobin mediated oxidative stress is associated with acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in severe falciparum malaria: an observational study

Variable Total No AKI AKI P
  (n = 107) (n = 45) (n = 62)
Demographics
 Age (years) 30 (22–40) 30 (25–45) 27 (18–40) 0.104
 Males (%)c 75 (70) 35 (78) 40 (65) 0.200
 Fever prior to admission (days) 7 (6–9) 7 (6–8) 7 (6–9) 0.311
 History of black or red urinec 20 (20) 5 (11) 15 (26) 0.100
 Vomiting and diarrhea (days) 5 (1–6) 2.5 (1–5) 5 (3–9) 0.045
Comorbidities
 Hypertensionc 5 (5) 2 (4) 3 (5) 1.000
 Cardiovascular diseasec 6 (6) 2 (4) 4 (6) 1.000
 Type 2 diabetesc 4 (4) 3 (7) 1 (2) 0.307
Enrolment clinical parameters
 Glasgow Coma Score (max 15) 9 (8–14) 10 (9–14) 9 (7–14) 0.354
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 110 (100–120) 114 (102–120) 107 (99–120) 0.155
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 82 (72–90) 81 (74–89) 82 (71–94) 0.550
 Pulse rate (breaths/min) 115 (96–132) 109 (93–131) 116 (97–132) 0.666
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min) 34 (28–42) 32 (28–37) 36 (28–44) 0.370
 Hemoglobinuria on enrolment# c 18 (17) 4 (9) 14 (24) 0.124
 Number of severity criteria 2 (1–3) 1 (1–2) 2 (2–4) <0.001
AKI stage at enrolment
 Stage 1 (≥1.5 × baseline)c 16 (26) -- 16 (26) --
 Stage 2 (≥2.0–2.9 × baseline)c 16 (26) -- 16 (26) --
 Stage 3 (≥3.0 × baseline or ≥4 mg/dl)c 30 (48) -- 30 (48) --
  1. All values are median (IQR) unless otherwise specified: cnumber (%). P < 0.05 using student t-test or Mann-Whitney U. # hemoglobinuria defined as red, black or dark brown urine on exam with 3/4+ hemoglobin on urine dipstick. Abbreviations: AKI acute kidney injury