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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: Measuring (1,3)-β-D-glucan in tracheal aspirate, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and serum for detection of suspected Candida pneumonia in immunocompromised and critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

  All Non-CP/non- candidemia Suspected CP Non-CP/ candidemia P
Number 31 18 9 4  
Age, year 66.4 ± 16.6 65.3 ± 18.5 66.9 ± 16.5 70.3 ± 6.2 0.971a
Sex, male (%) 20 (64.5) 11 (61.1) 6 (66.7) 3 (75.0) 0.860b
APACHE II at ICU admission 22.4 ± 5.2 22.3 ± 5.2 21.1 ± 4.2 25.3 ± 6.9 0.583a
APACHE II on enrolled day 24.2 ± 4.8 23.2 ± 5.0 25.1 ± 3.9 27.0 ± 5.3 0.316a
Initial reasons for MV (%)
 Post-surgery 7 (22.6%) 3 (16.7) 2 (22.2) 2 (50.0) 0.353b
 Pneumonia 24 (77.4%) 15 (83.3) 7 (77.8) 2 (50.0) 0.353b
Reasons for BAL (%)
 Non-responding pneumonia 18 (58.1) 9 (50.0) 7 (77.8) 2 (50) 0.363b
 Newly developed infiltration 13 (41.9) 9 (50.0) 2 (22.2) 2 (50) 0.363b
Host factors (%)
 Recent neutropenia 10 (32.3) 5 (27.8) 2 (22.2) 3 (75.0) 0.141b
 Prolonged steroid use 16 (51.6) 10 (55.6) 5 (55.6) 1 (25.0) 0.521b
 Immunosuppressants 5 (16.1) 3 (16.7) 2 (22.2) 0 0.600b
MV days 24.2 ± 12.5 23.7 ± 14.9 22.9 ± 9.4 29.3 ± 5.7 0.129a
ICU stay, days 27.8 ± 11.9 28.0 ± 14.4 26.6 ± 9.2 30.0 ± 4.3 0.494a
ICU mortality (%) 14 (45.2) 6 (33.3) 5 (55.6) 3 (75.0) 0.241b
Radiographic manifestationsc (%)
 Halo sign 1 (3.2) 0 1 (11.1) 0 0.283b
 Single/multiple nodules 11 (35.5) 3 (16.7) 7 (77.8) 1 (25.0) 0.007b
 Cavitary lesion 6 (19.4) 3 (16.7) 3 (33.3) 0 0.338b
 GGO/infiltration 29 (93.5) 17 (94.4) 8 (88.9) 4 (100) 0.732b
Mycological evidence of yeast (%)
 TBLBd,e 4 (12.9) 0 4 (44.5) 0 < 0.001b
 BALe 13 (41.9) 4 (22.2) 8 (88.9) 1 (25.0) 0.003b
 TA fungal culture 14 (45.2) 7 (38.9) 6 (66.7) 1 (25.0) 0.269b
 BAL fungal culture 13 (41.9) 5 (27.8) 8 (88.9) 0 0.002b
  1. Data are presented with means ± standard deviations
  2. CP Candida pneumonia, APACHE acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, MV mechanical ventilation, BAL bronchoalveolar lavage, GGO ground glass opacity, TBLB transbronchial lung biopsy, TA endotracheal aspirate, BAL bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
  3. aKruskal-Wallis test
  4. bFisher’s exact test
  5. cEach single patient could have more than one type of radiographic manifestation
  6. dA total of 19 patients underwent TBLB, including 11 in non-CP/non-candidemia, 7 in suspected CP, and 1 in non-CP/candidemia
  7. eFungal staining was applied using Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver stain in BAL and Periodic Acid-Schiff stain in TBLB