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Table 3 Crude and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models for chronic kidney disease in the Canadian Observational Cohort Collaboration a

From: Hepatitis C co-infection is associated with an increased risk of incident chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients initiating combination antiretroviral therapy

  Unadjusted HR (95% CI) Adjusted HRc (95% CI) Adjusted HRd (95% CI)
Hepatitis C virus co-infection 2.49 (1.79, 3.48) 1.97 (1.33, 2.90) 2.02 (1.36, 2.99)
Female sex 1.56 (1.07, 2.28) 2.16 (1.42, 3.28) 2.12 (1.39, 3.23)
Age ≤ 40 years, per 5 year increase b 0.97 (0.78, 1.21) 0.84 (0.67, 1.07) 0.82 (0.65, 1.04)
Age > 40 years, per 5 year increase b 1.59 (1.45, 1.74) 1.51 (1.35, 1.67) 1.45 (1.31, 1.62)
African/Caribbean ethnicity 0.55 (0.32, 0.94) 0.79 (0.43, 1.44) 0.72 (0.39, 1.32)
Baseline eGFR ≤100 mL/min/1.73 m2, per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 increase b 0.56 (0.49, 0.65) 0.60 (0.52, 0.69) 0.61 (0.52, 0.70)
Baseline eGFR >100 mL/min/1.73 m2, per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2 increase b 0.86 (0.70, 1.06) 1.02 (0.80, 1.30) 1.02 (0.80, 1.28)
CD4+ cell count, per 100 cells/μL increase 0.92 (0.86, 0.99) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.97 (0.90, 1.05)
HIV viral load, per log10 copies/mL increase 1.18 (1.01, 1.38) 1.20 (1.01, 1.43) 1.20 (1.01, 1.42)
Year of cART initiation, per calendar year increase 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 1.07 (0.99, 1.15) 1.07 (0.99, 1.15)
Tenofovir use, per cumulative year of use 1.17 (1.07, 1.29) 1.11 (0.99, 1.24) 1.12 (1.00, 1.25)
Atazanavir use, per cumulative year of use 1.16 (1.06, 1.28) 1.09 (0.98, 1.21) 1.10 (0.99, 1.23)
Lopinavir use, per cumulative year of use 1.12 (1.03, 1.22) 1.12 (1.02, 1.22) 1.12 (1.02, 1.23)
Liver fibrosis (APRI ≥1.5) 1.59 (1.08, 2.34) 1.50 (0.98, 2.30) 1.50 (0.98, 2.30)
Hypertension 1.69 (0.96, 2.99) N/A 1.70 (0.91, 3.17)
Diabetes 3.42 (2.29, 5.10) N/A 1.47 (0.96, 2.26)
  1. APRI aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index, cART combination antiretroviral therapy, CI confidence interval, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HR hazard ratio, N/A not available
  2. a Multiple imputation used for missing data
  3. b Age and baseline eGFR were modeled with a linear spline
  4. c Hypertension and diabetes excluded from the model
  5. d Hypertension and diabetes included in the model