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Table 2 Child characteristics by codetection of both viruses and bacteria in nasal swabs from 164 urban Indigenous children aged less than 5 years

From: Upper airway viruses and bacteria in urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Brisbane, Australia: a cross-sectional study

  All episodes Codetection No codetection p-value
(N = 164) (N = 57) (N = 107)
  n (%) n (%) n (%)
Gender
    Male   81 (49.4) 22 (38.6) 59 (55.1) 0.044
    Female 83 (50.6) 35 (61.4) 48 (44.9)  
Median age in months (IQR) 18.0 (7.2–34.3) 17.7 (10.4–25.8) 18.2 (6.3–39.1) 0.511
Agegroup (Months)
     < 6 32 (19.5) 7 (12.3) 25 (23.4) 0.529
    6 - <12 26 (15.9) 9 (15.8) 17 (15.9)  
    12 - <24 43 (26.2) 23 (40.3) 20 (18.7)  
    24 - <60 63 (38.4) 18 (31.6) 45 (42.1)  
Total annual household income (AUD)
     > =$78,000 16 (9.8) 5 (8.8) 11 (10.3) 0.947
    $52,000 - < $78,000 25 (15.2) 10 (17.5) 15 (14.0)  
    $26,000 - < $52,000 62 (37.8) 21 (36.8) 41 (38.3)  
     < $26,000 61 (37.2) 21 (36.8) 40 (37.4)  
Gestational age
     > = 37 weeks 145 (88.4) 9 (15.8) 10 (9.4) 0.220
     < 37 weeks 19 (11.6) 48 (84.2) 97 (90.7)  
Birth weight
     > =2500 g 135 (82.3) 45 (78.9) 90 (84.1) 0.409
     < 2500 g 29 (17.7) 12 (21.1) 17 (15.9)  
Breastfeeding history
    Ever breastfed 119 (72.6) 41 (71.9) 78 (72.9) 0.895
    Never breastfed 45 (27.4) 16 (28.1) 29 (27.1)  
Child care attendance
    Yes 49 (29.9) 21 (36.8) 28 (26.2) 0.155
    No 115 (70.1) 36 (63.2) 79 (73.8)  
Number of other children in the house
    0 33 (20.1) 14 (24.6) 19 (17.8) 0.239
    1–2 93 (56.7) 32 (56.1) 61 (57.0)  
     > =3 38 (23.2) 11 (19.3) 27 (25.2)  
Pets in household
    Yes 94 (57.3) 35 (61.4) 59 (55.1) 0.440
    No 70 (42.7) 22 (38.6) 48 (44.9)  
Regular exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
    Yes 119 (72.6) 44 (77.2) 75 (70.1) 0.332
    No 45 (27.4) 13 (22.8) 32 (29.9)  
Respiratory symptom at time of swab
    Yes 56 (34.1) 18 (31.6) 38 (35.5) 0.613
    No 108 (65.9) 39 (68.4) 69 (64.5)  
Season of enrolment
    Summer 38 (23.2) 12 (21.0) 26 (24.3) 0.500
    Autumn 50 (30.5) 15 (26.3) 35 (32.7)  
    Winter 35 (21.3) 16 (28.1) 19 (17.8)  
    Spring 41 (25.0) 14 (24.6) 27 (25.2)