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Table 6 Results of meta-analyses in Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) and HIV systematic review: weight and body composition outcomes

From: Effectiveness of Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) in the context of HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol

Outcomes Sub-Group Comparison of Meta-Analysis # of Individual Studies Included in Meta-Analysis Number of Participants Included in Meta-Analysis Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) 95% Confidence Interval P value of overall effect I2 statistic (p value for heterogeneity) Interpretation
Mean Body Weight (kg) PRE or combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 5 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Lox 1995 [40]; Spence 1990 [44]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
129 2.50 kg 0.32, 4.67 0.02a 76%
(p = 0.002)
Significant increase in body weight among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.
PRE compared with no exercise 2 studies
(Lox 1995 [40]; Spence 1990 [44])
46 4.24 kgb 1.82, 6.66 0.0006a 39%
(p = 0.20)
Significant and potential clinically important increase in body weight among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 3 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
83 0.81 kg −0.94, 2.56 0.37 19%
(p = 0.29)
“No difference in change in body weight among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and diet and/or nutrition counselling group compared with diet and/or nutrition counselling alone. 3 studies
(Balasumbramanyam 2011 [26]; Ogalha 2011 [30]; Shevitz 2005 [43])
162 −0.67 kg −4.25, 2.92 0.72 93%
(p < 0.00001)
“No difference in change in body weight for participants in the combined exercise and diet or nutrition counselling group compared with the diet or nutrition counselling alone group.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and testosterone compared with testosterone alone 2 studies
(Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Sattler 1999 [42])
51 0.42 kg −0.92, 1.77 0.54 0%
(p = 0.48)
No difference in change in body weight for exercisers taking testosterone compared with those taking testosterone only.
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) PRE or combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 5 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Farinatti 2010 [27]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Lox 1995 [40]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
131 0.40 kg/m2 −0.22, 1.03 0.21 34%
(p = 0.19)
“No difference in change in body mass index among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 4 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Farinatti 2010 [27]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
109 0.21 kg/m2 −0.27, 0.68 0.40 0%
(p = 0.40)
“No difference in change in body mass index among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and diet and/or nutrition counselling group compared with diet and/or nutrition counselling alone 3 studies
(Balasubramanyam 2011 [26]; Ogalha 2011 [30]; Shevitz 2005 [43])
162 −0.55 kg/m2 −1.22, 0.12 0.11 83%
(p = 0.002)
No difference in change in body mass index for participants in the combined PRE and diet or nutrition counselling group compared with the diet or nutrition counselling only group.
Lean Body Mass (kg) PRE or combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 4 studies
(Farinatti 2010 [27]; Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Lox 1995 [40]; Perez-Moreno 2007 [31])
90 2.14 kg −0.11, 4.39 0.06 59%
(p = 0.06)
“No difference in change in lean body mass among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 3 studies
(Farinatti 2010 [27], Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Perez-Moreno 2007 [31])
68 1.23 kg −0.62, 3.08 0.19 17%
(p = 0.30)
“No difference in change in lean body mass among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and testosterone compared with testosterone alone 2 studies
(Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Sattler 1999 [42])
51 0.64 kg −0.97, 2.26 0.44 0%
(p = 0.63)
No difference in change in lean body mass for exercisers taking testosterone compared with those taking testosterone alone.
Leg Muscle Area (cm2 or mm2) Combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 2 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Grinspoon 2000 [39])
60 4.79 cm2 2.04, 7.54 0.0007a 11%
(p = 0.29)
Significant increase in leg muscle area among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.
  PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and testosterone compared with testosterone alone 2 studies
(Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Sattler 1999 [42])
51 56.09 mm2 −359.53, 471.72 0.79 0%
(p = 0.67)
No difference in change in leg muscle area for exercisers taking testosterone compared with those taking testosterone only.
Fat Mass (kg) PRE or combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 4 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Lox 1995 [40])
103 0.36 kg −0.50, 1.23 0.41 0%
(p = 0.53)
“No difference in change in fat mass among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 3 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Grinspoon 2000 [39])
81 0.18 kg −0.74, 1.10 0.70 0%
(p = 0.63)
“No difference in change in fat mass among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and testosterone compared with testosterone alone 2 studies
(Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Sattler 1999 [42])
51 −0.73 kg −1.50, 0.04 0.06 0%
(p = 0.86)
No difference in change in fat mass for exercisers taking testosterone compared with those taking testosterone only.
Waist Circumference (cm) Combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 3 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
82 −1.33 cm −4.21, 1.54 0.36 37%
(p = 0.21)
“No difference in change in waist circumference among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
Arm and Thigh Girth (cm) PRE compared with no exercise 2 studies
(Lox 1995 [40]; Spence 1990 [44])
46 7.91 cmb 2.18, 13.65 0.007a 67%
(p = 0.08)
Significant and potential clinically important increase in arm and thigh girth among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.
  1. aIndicates statistical significance; bindicates potential clinically important change in outcome