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Table 3 Results of meta-analyses in Progressive Resistive (PRE) exercise and HIV systematic review: immunological and virological outcomes

From: Effectiveness of Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) in the context of HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol

Outcomes Sub-Group Comparison of Meta-Analysis # of Individual Studies Included in Meta-Analysis Number of Participants Included in Meta-Analysis Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) 95% Confidence Interval P value of overall effect I2 statistic (p value for heterogeneity) Interpretation
CD4 count (cells/mm3) PRE or combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 8 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Farinatti 2010 [27]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Lox 1995 [40]; Perez-Moreno 2007 [31]; Rigsby 1992 [41]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
195 63.95 cells/mm3,b 12.42, 115.48 0.01a 70%
(p = 0.001)
Significant increase in CD4 count among exercisers compared with non-exercisers. “Confidence interval indicates a positive trend towards an improvement in CD4 count among exercisers.” [12].
Combined PRE and aerobic exercise compared with no exercise 7 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Farinatti 2010 [27]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Perez-Moreno 2007 [31]; Rigsby 1992 [41]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
173 57.82 cells/mm3 −1.27, 116.91 0.06 74%
(p < 0.0001)
“No difference in change in CD4 count among exercisers compared with non-exercisers. Confidence interval indicates a positive trend towards an improvement in CD4 count among exercisers.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and diet and/or nutrition counselling group compared with diet and/or nutrition counselling alone. 3 studies
(Balasubramanyam 2011 [26]; Ogalha 2011 [30]; Shevitz 2005 [43])
162 20.18 cells/mm3 −21.49, 61.85 0.34 78%
(p = 0.01)
No difference in change in CD4 count among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) and testosterone compared with testosterone alone 2 studies
(Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Sattler 1999 [42])
51 −32.13 cells/mm3 −56.96, −7.30 0.01a 0%
(p = 0.96)
Significant decrease in CD4 count among exercisers taking testosterone compared with those taking testosterone only.
Viral Load (log10 copies) Combined PRE and aerobic exercise group compared with compared with no exercise 4 studies
(Dolan 2006 [37]; Fitch 2012 [28]; Grinspoon 2000 [39]; Tiozzo 2011 [33])
99 0.12 log10 copies −0.23, 0.46 0.51 0%
(p = 0.46)
“No difference in change in viral load among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.” [12].
PRE (or combined PRE and aerobic exercise) plus diet and/or nutrition compared with diet and/or nutrition only 2 studies
(Balasubramanyam 2011 [26]; Shevitz 2005 [43])
99 0.37 log10 copies −1.43, 2.17 0.40 31%
(p = 0.23)
No difference in change in viral load among exercisers compared with non-exercisers.
  1. aIndicates statistical significance; bindicates potential clinically important improvement