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Table 1 Selected characteristics of included studies in the Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) and HIV systematic review (n = 20) (for further details, see Additional file 2)

From: Effectiveness of Progressive Resistive Exercise (PRE) in the context of HIV: systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol

Study Methods Sample Size (at baseline) % Women % Taking combination ART Participants (at study completion) Withdrawal Rate
Agin (2001) [35] Randomized combined PRE and whey protein vs whey protein alone vs PRE alone [3 groups] 43 (with wasting) 100% Unknown 30 13/43 (30%)
Agostini (2009) [25]a, b Randomized combined AER + PRE vs diet and aerobic exercise recommendation alone (no exercise)
[2 groups]
76 39% 100% 70 6/76 (8%)
Balasubramanyam (2011) [26]a, b Randomized trial with five groups. In this review we compared diet and exercise (lifestyle change) vs usual care (no exercise) [2 groups] 191 (with dyslipidemia) 13% 100% 128
(68 participants in the 2 comparison groups of interest)
63/191 (33%)
Bhasin (2000) [36] Randomized PRE vs PRE + testosterone vs testosterone only vs no exercise [4 groups] 61 (with involuntary weight loss and low testosterone) 0% 100% taking ARVs (unclear whether it was cART) 49 12/61 (20%)
Dolan (2006) [37]b Randomized constant ARE +PRE vs no exercise
[2 groups]
40 (with self-reported and physical evidence of changes in fat distribution) 100% 82% taking ARVs (unclear whether it was cART) 38 2/40 (5%)
Driscoll (2004a) [38]b Randomized combined AER + PRE and metformin vs metformin alone
[2 groups]
37 (evidence of fat redistribution and hyperinsulinemia) 20% 100% 25 12/37 (32%)
Farinatti (2010) [27]a, b Randomized constant AER + PRE exercise vs no exercise [2 groups] 27 Not reported 100% 27 0/27 (0%)
Fitch (2012) [28]a, b Randomized constant AER + PRE exercise (LSM) vs AER + PRE exercise + metformin vs no LSM and metformin alone vs versus no exercise (no LSM or metformin)
[4 groups]
50 (with metabolic syndrome) 24% 100% 36 14/50 (28%)
Grinspoon (2000) [39]b Randomized PRE + AER vs PRE + AER and testosterone vs testosterone alone vs no exercise [4 groups] 54 (with AIDS-related wasting) 0% 72% 43 11/54 (20%)
[4/26 (15%) from the 2 groups of interest]
Lindegaard (2008) [29]a, b Randomized AER vs PRE [2 groups] 20 (with dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy) 0% 100% 18 2/20 (10%)
Lox (1995) [40]b Randomized constant AER vs PRE vs no exercise [3 groups]c 22 (aerobic and control groups only) 0% 100% (taking some form of ARV therapy that may or may not have been in combination) 21 1/22 (4%)
Ogalha (2011) [30]a, b Randomized AER+ PRE + nutrition counseling vs nutrition counseling alone
[2 groups]
70 (lipodystrophy in 54% of participants) 46% 100% 63 7/70 (10%)
Perez-Moreno (2007) [31]a, b Randomized constant AER+ PRE vs no exercise [2 groups] 27 (prison inmates living with Hepatitis C co-infection) 0% 10% 19 8/27
(30%)
Rigbsy (1992) [41] Randomized constant AER+ PRE vs no exercise (counselling) [2 groups] 45 (37 HIV+) 0% Not reported 31 (24 HIV+) 13/37 (35%)
Sakkas (2009) [32]a Randomized PRE+ creatine vs PRE alone
[2 groups]
40 0% 75% 33 7/40 (18%)
Sattler (1999) [42] Randomized PRE+ testosterone vs testosterone only
[2 groups]
33 0% 80% 30 3/33 (9%)
Shevitz (2005) [43] Randomized combined PRE+ nutrition + oxandrolone vs nutrition + oxandrolone vs nutrition alone
[3 groups]
50 (with wasting) 30% 80% 47 3/50 (6%)
Spence (1990) [44] Randomized PRE vs no exercise (control)
[2 groups]
24 0% 100% taking AZT NR Unknown
Tiozzo (2011) [33]a, b Randomized constant AER + PRE vs no exercise (control) [2 groups] 37 39% 100% 23 14/37 (38%)
Yarasheski (2011) [34]a, b Randomized constant AER+ PRE+ pioglitazone vs pioglitazone only
[2 groups]
44 (with insulin resistance, impaired glucose intolerance and central adiposity) 13% 100% 39 5/44 (11%)
  1. aStudy included in this update of the systematic review;
  2. bStudy also included in systematic review examining effect of aerobic exercise with adults living with HIV [12] https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-016-1478-2; cFor this review, PRE and control groups were included in meta-analyses; PRE progressive resistive exercise, AER aerobic exercise, NR not reported, ART antiretroviral therapy, cART combination antiretroviral therapy, HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy, 1RM 1 repetition maximum, HR heart rate, reps repetitions, LSM lifestyle modification