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Table 2 Summary estimates of included studies

From: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopian settings and its association with previous history of anti-tuberculosis treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics Studies TB patients Combined effect (95%Cl) P-value
Study population
 Studies ≥100 patients 11 150,672 1.9% (1.9% - 2%) <0.001
 Studies <100 patients 5 393 7.9% (5.2% -10.6%)
Geographic region
 Studies from various regions 14 2051 4.6% (3.7% - 5.5%) 0.016
 National level surveys 2 149,014 1.9% (1.8% - 2%)
MDR-MTB isolation
 Culture only 8 150,020 1.9% (1.9% - 2%) 0.010
 Mixeda 8 1045 4.3% (3.1% - 5.5%)
Types of patients
 New cases 14 146,320 2% (1% - 2%) <0.001
 Previously treated cases 12 7584 15% (12% - 17%)
All studies 16 151,065 6% (4% - 8%)  
  1. Keys: aCulture and molecular tests, SE standard error, CI confidence interval