Skip to main content

Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for the association between age at EBV infection and exposure variables, stratified by ethnic group

From: Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus infection in the first two years of life: a cohort study in Bradford, UK

White British   Age at EBV infection Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 361
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 361
by 12 mths 12–24 mths uninfected at 24 mths
All children, n = 391 28 (7%) 71 (18%) 292 (75%)    
Birth order (391) 1 10 (5%) 33 (18%) 141 (77%) 1.0 - -
2 10 (8%) 18 (14%) 100 (78%) 0.95 (0.56–1.63) - -
3+ 8 (10%) 20 (25%) 51 (65%) 1.80 (1.02–3.17) - -
Total household members at 12 m (389) median
IQR, range
4
3–4.5, 2–8
4
3–5, 2–7
4
3–4, 2–8
1.20 (0.97–1.47) 1.19 (0.97–1.47) 0.91 (0.63–1.33)
No. of children (<16y) in household at 12 m (369) median
IQR, range
2
1–3, 1–6
1
1–2, 1–5
2
1–2, 1–4
1.36 (1.07–1.74) 1.34 (1.05–1.71) 1.53 (0.96–2.42)
Duration of breastfeeding (390) never 12 (12%) 20 (19%) 70 (69%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
<=4 weeks 8 (8%) 20 (20%) 71 (72%) 0.83 (0.46–1.51) 0.78 (0.42–1.47) 0.96 (0.48–1.89)
1–6 months 7 (7%) 16 (17%) 72 (76%) 0.68 (0.36–1.27) 0.62 (0.33–1.18) 0.88 (0.43–1.78)
6–12 months 1 (2%) 11 (17%) 53 (81%) 0.46 (0.22–0.97) 0.44 (0.21–0.94) 0.74 (0.31–1.76)
>12 months 0 4 (14%) 25 (86%) 0.32 (0.10–1.00) 0.31 (0.10–0.96) 0.58 (0.17–2.00)
Bedroom sharing in first year (389) no 15 (7%) 36 (16%) 169 (77%) 1.0   -
yes 13 (8%) 35 (21%) 121 (72%) 1.30 (0.82–2.04)   -
Bedroom sharing in second year (391) No 14 (6%) 43 (17%) 191 (77%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
yes 14 (10%) 28 (19%) 101 (71%) 1.43 (0.90–2.27) 1.59 (0.99–2.57) 1.21 (0.71–2.07)
Informal child care from 12 m to 24 m visit: total hours (384) No childcare 12 (10%) 21 (17%) 92 (74%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
<1165 total hours 3 (7%) 13 (29%) 28 (64%) 1.45 (0.71–2.96) 1.31 (0.62–2.78) 2.48 (1.04–5.92)
> = 1165 total hours 4 (10%) 6 (15%) 31 (75%) 0.91 (0.40–2.05) 0.89 (0.39–2.02) 1.54 (0.61–3.86)
No informal (only formal) 3 (3%) 17 (16%) 87 (81%) 0.61 (0.33–1.13) 0.56 (0.30–1.05) 0.87 (0.43–1.75)
No 24 m childcare, only 12 m 6 (9%) 12 (18%) 49 (73%) 1.01 (0.52–1.97) 1.00 (0.51–1.99) 1.05 (0.50–2.20)
Mother and baby activities in first year (389) Rarely 23 (11%) 44 (21%) 142 (68%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least once a month 5 (3%) 27 (15%) 148 (82%) 0.44 (0.27–0.71) 0.44 (0.27–0.71) 0.53 (0.31–0.90)
Mother and baby activities in second year (389) Rarely 13 (8%) 34 (22%) 111 (70%) 1.0   -
At least once a month 15 (6%) 37 (16%) 179 (78%) 0.69 (0.44–1.09)   -
Maternal age at recruitment (391) Mean, SD, range 26.6, 5.34
18–35
28.1, 5.83
16–41
29.4, 5.99
15–43
0.95 (0.91–0.99) 0.95 (0.91–0.99) 0.96 (0.91–1.01)
Maternal education (391) 5 GCSE equivalent or less 18 (11%) 32 (20%) 107 (68%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
A level equiv & higher 9 (5%) 32 (17%) 149 (78%) 0.56 (0.35–0.91) 0.55 (0.34–0.89) 0.86 (0.47–1.60)
other/DK/foreign unknown 1 (2%) 7 (16%) 36 (82%) 0.45 (0.20–1.03) 0.36 (0.14–0.91) 0.46 (0.17–1.25)
Home ownership (391) Yes 12 (5%) 41 (17%) 192 (78%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
No 16 (11%) 30 (21%) 100 (68%) 1.73 (1.09–2.73) 1.65 (1.03–2.64) 0.94 (0.50–1.74)
Age 24 m blood sample taken (mths) (391) 23.59–24.99 9 (11%) 11 (13%) 64 (76%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
25–26.99 18 (8%) 36 (16%) 174 (76%) 0.96 (0.53–1.72) 1.01 (0.55–1.87) 1.04 (0.54–1.99)
27–32.89 1 (1%) 24 (30%) 54 (68%) 1.26 (0.64–2.48) 1.26 (0.62–2.57) 1.21 (0.57–2.57)
Pakistani   by 12 mths 12–24 mths uninfected at 24 mths Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 453
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 453
All children, n = 472 101 (21%) 140 (30%) 231 (49%)  
Birth order (472) 1 26 (21%) 38 (30%) 62 (49%) 1.0   -
2 24 (22%) 31 (29%) 52 (49%) 1.05 (0.65–1.71)   -
3+ 51 (21%) 71 (30%) 117 (49%) 1.02 (0.68–1.53)   -
Total household members at 12 m (468) median
IQR, range
6
5–7, 3–13
6
4–7, 3–15
5
4–7, 2–15
1.07 (1.00–1.16) 1.07 (0.99–1.15) 1.07 (0.98–1.17)
No. of children (<16y) in household at 12 m (456) median
IQR, range
3
2–4, 1–8
3
2–4, 1–7
3
2–4, 1–7
1.08 (0.95–1.23) 1.08 (0.94–1.22) 1.03 (0.87–1.20)
Duration of breastfeeding (468) never 21 (25%) 21 (25%) 42 (50%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
<=4 weeks 25 (27%) 29 (32%) 37 (41%) 1.34 (0.77–2.35) 1.53 (0.87–2.70) 1.65 (0.92–2.96)
1–6 months 24 (20%) 36 (30%) 61 (50%) 0.90 (0.53–1.53) 0.87 (0.51–1.49) 0.82 (0.48–1.43)
6–12 months 17 (17%) 32 (31%) 53 (52%) 0.82 (0.47–1.41) 0.82 (0.47–1.43) 0.73 (0.41–1.29)
>12 months 14 (20%) 19 (27%) 37 (53%) 0.84 (0.46–1.54) 0.87 (0.47–1.61) 0.88 (0.47–1.63)
Bedroom sharing in first year (468) no 2 (6%) 10 (32%) 19 (61%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
yes 99 (23%) 128 (29%) 210 (48%) 1.94 (0.95–3.96) 1.95 (0.95–3.99) 2.06 (0.99–4.28)
Bedroom sharing in second year (472) no 4 (17%) 5 (21%) 15 (62%) 1.0   -
yes 97 (22%) 135 (30%) 216 (48%) 1.70 (0.74–3.90)   -
Bed sharing in second year (471) No 55 (21%) 70 (26%) 142 (53%) 1.0   -
yes 46 (22%) 69 (34%) 89 (44%) 1.35 (0.96–1.90)   -
Any regular child care arrangement up to 24 m visit (472) no 87 (23%) 106 (28%) 187 (49%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
yes 14 (15%) 34 (37%) 44 (48%) 0.91 (0.60–1.38) 0.89 (0.58–1.37) 0.97 (0.62–1.53)
Mother and baby activities in first year (468) Rarely 88 (22%) 124 (31%) 193 (48%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least once a month 13 (21%) 14 (22%) 36 (57%) 0.74 (0.44–1.25) 0.67 (0.40–1.15) 0.61 (0.35–1.06)
Mother and baby activities in second year (472) Rarely 58 (23%) 78 (31%) 117 (46%) 1.0   -
At least once a month 43 (20%) 62 (28%) 114 (52%) 0.80 (0.57–1.13)   -
Age 24 m blood sample taken (mths) (472) 23.59–24.99 20 (22%) 22 (24%) 49 (54%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
25–26.99 46 (19%) 70 (29%) 124 (52%) 1.02 (0.64–1.62) 0.98 (0.61–1.57) 1.10 (0.67–1.80)
27–32.89 35 (25%) 48 (34%) 58 (41%) 1.50 (0.91–2.47) 1.47 (0.88–2.46) 1.78 (1.05–3.04)
  1. EBV Epstein-Barr virus; OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; IQR inter-quartile range