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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios for the association between age at CMV infection and exposure variables, stratified by ethnic group

From: Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus infection in the first two years of life: a cohort study in Bradford, UK

White British   Age at CMV infection Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 379
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 379
by 12 mths 12–24 mths uninfected at 24 mths
All children, n = 391 36 (9%) 25 (6%) 330 (84%)  
Birth order (391) 1 20 (11%) 7 (4%) 157 (85%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
2 11 (9%) 12 (9%) 105 (82%) 1.21 (0.66–2.22) 1.19 (0.65–2.18) 0.81 (0.38–1.70)
3+ 5 (6%) 6 (8%) 68 (86%) 0.90 (0.42–1.91) 0.80 (0.37–1.74) 0.47 (0.14–1.52)
Total household members at baseline (390) median
IQR, range
3
2–3.5, 2–8
3
2–4, 1–6
3
2–3, 1–8
1.15 (0.91–1.46) 1.16 (0.91–1.49) 1.42 (1.01–1.99)
Duration of breastfeeding (390) never 7 (7%) 5 (5%) 90 (88%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
<=4 weeks 7 (7%) 7 (7%) 85 (86%) 1.22 (0.53–2.78) 1.10 (0.48–2.55) 1.16 (0.47–2.82)
1–6 months 4 (4%) 5 (5%) 86 (91%) 0.77 (0.31–1.93) 0.78 (0.31–1.93) 0.89 (0.33–2.40)
6–12 months 12 (19%) 8 (12%) 45 (69%) 3.29 (1.49–7.28) 3.20 (1.45–7.10) 4.03 (1.54–10.52)
>12 months 6 (21%) 0 23 (79%) 2.18 (0.74–6.45) 2.08 (0.70–6.16) 4.05 (1.19–13.78)
Bedroom sharing in first year (389) no 18 (8%) 14 (6%) 188 (85%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
yes 18 (11%) 11 (6%) 140 (83%) 1.23 (0.71–2.12) 1.22 (0.70–2.11) 1.67 (0.85–3.26)
Formal child care up to 12 m visit (381) No childcare 13 (8%) 6 (4%) 142 (88%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
<1165 total hours 3 (9%) 0 31 (91%) 0.74 (0.21–2.67) 0.74 (0.21–2.65) 0.90 (0.23–3.57)
> = 1165 total hours 11 (12%) 16 (17%) 68 (71%) 2.69 (1.41–5.15) 2.71 (1.42–5.18) 3.63 (1.61–8.17)
No formal (only informal) 9 (9%) 2 (2%) 80 (88%) 1.05 (0.47–2.31) 1.04 (0.47–2.29) 1.39 (0.59–3.32)
Informal child care up to 12 m visit (376) No childcare 13 (8%) 6 (4%) 142 (88%) 1.0 - -
<1165 total hours 10 (8%) 5 (4%) 104 (87%) 1.08 (0.52–2.22)   
> = 1165 total hours 3 (20%) 0 12 (80%) 2.05 (0.53–7.96)   
No informal (only formal) 8 (9%) 14 (17%) 59 (73%) 2.52 (1.28–4.96)   
Mother and baby activities in first year (389) Rarely 22 (11%) 13 (6%) 174 (83%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least once a month 14 (8%) 12 (7%) 154 (86%) 0.83 (0.48–1.43) 0.87 (0.50–1.51) 0.74 (0.39–1.40)
Maternal age at recruitment (391) Mean, SD, range 27.9, 6.1
15–38
30.1, 5.7
18–43
29.0, 6.0
16–43
0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.99 (0.95–1.04) 0.99 (0.93–1.05)
Home ownership (391) Yes 20 (8%) 15 (6%) 210 (86%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
No 16 (11%) 10 (7%) 120 (82%) 1.31 (0.75–2.27) 1.31 (0.75–2.28) 2.07 (0.99–4.35)
Age 24 m blood sample taken (mths) (391) 23.59–24.99 6 (7%) 3 (4%) 75 (89%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
25–26.99 23 (10%) 19 (8%) 186 (82%) 1.84 (0.86–3.96) 2.11 (0.95–4.71) 1.60 (0.68–3.77)
27–32.89 7 (9%) 3 (4%) 69 (87%) 1.22 (0.47–3.17) 1.38 (0.51–3.69) 0.95 (0.33–2.76)
Pakistani   by 12 mths 12–24 mths uninfected at 24 mths Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
Unadjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 466
Adjusted OR
(95% CI)
n = 466
All children, n = 472 162 (34%) 47 (10%) 263 (56%)  
Birth order (472) 1 63 (50%) 14 (11%) 49 (39%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
2 31 (29%) 13 (12%) 63 (59%) 0.43 (0.26–0.72) 0.43 (0.26–0.71) 0.41 (0.23–0.73)
3+ 68 (29%) 20 (8%) 151 (63%) 0.38 (0.25–0.58) 0.37 (0.24–0.56) 0.37 (0.22–0.64)
Total household members at baseline (472) median
IQR, range
5
4–7, 2–12
5
4–7, 2–16
5
4–6, 2–12
1.09 (1.01–1.18) 1.09 (1.01–1.17) 1.08 (0.99–1.17)
Duration of breastfeeding (468) never 7 (8%) 7 (8%) 70 (84%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
<=4 weeks 20 (22%) 10 (11%) 61 (67%) 2.49 (1.22–5.08) 2.53 (1.24–5.17) 2.60 (1.22–5.53)
1–6 months 45 (37%) 7 (6%) 69 (57%) 4.27 (2.18–8.36) 4.27 (2.18–8.36) 3.61 (1.79–7.27)
6–12 months 51 (50%) 12 (12%) 39 (38%) 8.34 (4.21–16.51) 8.53 (4.30–16.92) 7.38 (3.61–15.10)
>12 months 37 (53%) 11 (16%) 22 (31%) 10.03 (4.85–20.75) 10.04 (4.85–20.77) 12.57 (5.81–27.19)
Bedroom sharing in the first year (468) no 8 (26%) 2 (6%) 21 (68%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
yes 153 (35%) 45 (10%) 239 (55%) 1.68 (0.78–3.63) 1.68 (0.78–3.62) 1.60 (0.69–3.71)
Any regular child care arrangement up to 12 m visit (468) no 139 (34%) 39 (10%) 227 (56%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
yes 22 (35%) 8 (13%) 33 (52%) 1.10 (0.66–1.84) 1.14 (0.68–1.91) 1.23 (0.67–2.25)
Mother and baby activities in the first year (468) Rarely 146 (36%) 40 (9%) 219 (54%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
At least once a month 15 (24%) 7 (11%) 41 (65%) 0.61 (0.35–1.05) 0.61 (0.35–1.05) 0.65 (0.35–1.19)
Travel outside Europe by 12 m visit (469) No 134 (36%) 40 (11%) 203 (54%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
yes 27 (29%) 7 (7%) 58 (63%) 0.71 (0.45–1.12) 0.72 (0.45–1.14) 0.52 (0.31–0.87)
Maternal age at recruitment (472) Mean, SD, range 28.2, 5.02
17–42
27.6, 4.19
19–36
29.3, 5.55
17–44
0.96 (0.93–0.99) 0.96 (0.92–0.99) 0.99 (0.94–1.03)
Mother’s country of birth (472) UK or Ireland 47 (26%) 19 (11%) 111 (63%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
Elsewhere 115 (39%) 28 (9%) 152 (52%) 1.64 (1.13–2.38) 1.68 (1.15–2.44) 1.87 (1.20–2.92)
Home ownership (472) Yes 94 (31%) 30 (10%) 183 (59%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
No 68 (41%) 17 (10%) 80 (49%) 1.58 (1.09–2.28) 1.56 (1.08–2.26) 1.27 (0.83–1.94)
Age 24 m blood sample taken (mths) (472) 23.59–24.99 27 (30%) 6 (7%) 58 (64%) 1.0 1.0 1.0
25–26.99 88 (37%) 29 (12%) 123 (51%) 1.56 (0.96–2.54) 1.50 (0.92–2.45) 1.22 (0.71–2.12)
27–32.89 47 (33%) 12 (9%) 82 (58%) 1.24 (0.73–2.12) 1.19 (0.70–2.04) 0.91 (0.49–1.69)
  1. CMV cytomegalovirus; OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; IQR inter-quartile range