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Table 1 Characteristics of the children and their mothers

From: Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and varicella zoster virus infection in the first two years of life: a cohort study in Bradford, UK

  All (n = 1000) White British (n = 391) Pakistani (n = 472)
Mother’s baseline questionnaire
Mother’s ethnic group
 White British 391 (39%)   
 White Other 26 (3%)   
 Mixed-White and Black 8 (1%)   
 Mixed-White and South Asian 5 (1%)   
 Black 17 (2%)   
 Indian 42 (4%)   
 Pakistani 472 (47%)   
 Bangladeshi 15 (1%)   
 Other 24 (2%)   
Mother’s country of birth
 UK & Ireland 612 (61%) 386 (99%) 177 (38%)
 Elsewhere 388 (39%) 5 (1%) 295 (62%)
Mother’s age at recruitment (yrs) mean, SD, range  
28.9, 5.57, 15–44 28.9, 5.96, 15–43 28.8, 5.28, 17–44
Marital & cohabitation status combined
 Married and living with partner 716 (72%) 167 (43%) 445 (94%)
 Not married and living with partner 170 (17%) 146 (37%) 1
 Not living with partner 113 (11%) 77 (20%) 26 (6%)
 missing (married, cohab status missing) 1 1 0
Birth order
 1 367 (37%) 184 (47%) 126 (27%)
 2 289 (29%) 128 (33%) 107 (23%)
 3–4 290 (29%) 72 (18%) 194 (41%)
 5+ 54 (5%) 7 (2%) 45 (9%)
Total no. of household members
 median, IQR, range 4, 3–5, 1–16 3, 2–3, 1–8 5, 4–7, 2–16
 missing 1 1 0
No. of household members under 16 years
 median, IQR, range 1, 0–2, 0–7 1, 0–1, 0–6 2, 1–3, 0–7
 missing 1 1 0
Mother’s highest educational qualification (equivalised)
  < 5 GCSE equivalent 200 (20%) 59 (15%) 130 (28%)
 5 GCSE equivalent 253 (25%) 98 (25%) 135 (29%)
 A level equivalent 147 (15%) 72 (18%) 55 (12%)
 higher than A level 313 (31%) 118 (30%) 134 (28%)
 Other/don’t know/foreign unknown 86 (9%) 44 (11%) 17 (3%)
 missing 1 0 1
Mother’s employment status
 Currently employed 461 (46%) 279 (71%) 94 (20%)
 Previously employed 238 (24%) 91 (23%) 117 (25%)
 Never employed 300 (30%) 21 (5%) 261 (55%)
 missing 1   
Father’s employment status
 Employed non-manual 414 (44%) 215 (59%) 135 (30%)
 Employed manual 298 (31%) 85 (23%) 172 (38%)
 Self-employed 166 (17%) 38 (10%) 111 (25%)
 Student 9 (1%) 4 (1%) 2
 Unemployed 54 (6%) 21 (6%) 28 (6%)
 Don’t know 5 (1%) 4 (1%) 1
 missing 54 24 23
Mother smoked during pregnancy
 Yes 135 (14%) 110 (28%) 15 (3%)
 No 863 (86%) 281 (72%) 456 (97%)
 missing 2   1
Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 quintile (national)
 1 (most deprived) 640 (64%) 162 (41%) 387 (82%)
 2 164 (16%) 87 (22%) 49 (10%)
 3 141 (14%) 94 (24%) 30 (6%)
 4 35 (4%) 31 (8%) 4 (1%)
 5 (least deprived) 20 (2%) 17 (4%) 2
Maternity records
 Parity (registerable)
 median, IQR, range
 
1, 0–2, 0–7 1, 0–1, 0–6 2, 0–3, 0–7
 missing 26 10 14
 Gestational age (to last completed week) median, IQR, range  
39, 38–40, 29–44 40, 38–40, 29–44 39, 38–40, 20–42
 missing 6 2 3
 Birth weight (g)
 median, IQR, range
 
3280, 2920–3610, 890–4904 3400, 3050–3710, 890–4820 3180, 2880–3490, 1275–4520
 missing 6 2 3
Route of birth
 vaginal 783 (79%) 296 (76%) 387 (83%)
 caesarean 211 (21%) 93 (24%) 82 (17%)
 missing 6 2 3
Sex of baby
 Male 531 (53%) 190 (49%) 262 (55%)
 Female 469 (47%) 201 (51%) 210 (44%)
ALL IN questionnaires
 Ever breastfed 806 (81%) 289 (74%) 386 (82%)
 Never breastfed 192 (19%) 102 (26%) 84 (18%)
 missing 2 0 2
Duration of breastfeeding
 never 192 (19%) 102 (26%) 84 (18%)
  < =4 weeks 210 (21%) 99 (25%) 91 (19%)
 1–6 months 243 (24%) 95 (24%) 121 (26%)
 6–12 months 219 (22%) 65 (17%) 102 (22%)
  > 12 months 131 (13%) 29 (7%) 70 (15%)
 missing 5 1 4
Bedroom/bed sharing
 Shared bedroom up to 6 mths: Yes 912 (92%) 323 (83%) 463 (99%)
 No 82 66 5
 missing 6 2 4
 Shared bedroom from 6 mths to 12mth visit: Yes 716 (72%) 170 (44%) 439 (94%)
 No 278 219 29
 missing 6 2 4
 Shared bedroom from 12 mths: Yes 688 (69%) 143 (37%) 448 (95%)
 No 312 248 24
 Shared bed from 12 mths: Yes 273 (27%) 27 (7%) 204 (43%)
 No 726 364 267
 missing 1   1
Childcare
 Ever regular childcare by 12 m visit 348 (35%) 228 (58%) 63 (13%)
 Never regular childcare by 12 m 646 161 405
 missing 6 2 4
 Ever regular childcare by 24 m visit 426 (43%) 266 (68%) 92 (19%)
 Never regular childcare by 24 m 574 (57%) 125 (32%) 380 (81%)
Mother & baby activities up to 6 m
 Rarely 634 (64%) 169 (44%) 383 (82%)
 At least once a month 41 (4%) 24 (6%) 11 (2%)
 Usually once a week 191 (19%) 104 (27%) 55 (12%)
 More than once a week 126 (13%) 91 (23%) 18 (4%)
 missing 8 3 5
Mother & baby activities 6 m to 12 m visit
 Rarely 593 (60%) 175 (45%) 337 (72%)
 At least once a month 66 (7%) 32 (8%) 26 (6%)
 Usually once a week 203 (20%) 92 (24%) 79 (17%)
 More than once a week 132 (13%) 90 (23%) 26 (5%)
 missing 6 2 4
Ever travelled outside UK up to 12 m visit
 No 773 (78%) 320 (82%) 373 (79%)
 Within Europe 93 (9%) 61 (16%) 4 (1%)
 Outside Europe 128 (13%) 7 (2%) 92 (20%)
 missing 6 3 3
Travelled outside UK since 1st birthday (up to 24 m visit)
 No 686 (69%) 271 (69%) 343 (73%)
 Within Europe 155 (15%) 110 (28%) 12 (2%)
 Outside Europe 159 (16%) 10 (3%) 117 (25%)