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Table 1 Characteristics of studies in children, immunocompromised and recently arrived immigrants from countries with high incidence of TB

From: Comparing interferon-gamma release assays with tuberculin skin test for identifying latent tuberculosis infection that progresses to active tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID (First author, year, country, and extent of TB burdenb) Tests compared Total number of participants tested with IGRA and TST Mean (range or SD) or median age (IQR) in years BCG vaccination [n, (%)] in population Mean or median length of follow-up (years) Method(s) for diagnosing TB
 Diel 2011 [11], Germany
 Low incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (5/10 mm) 126 Mean: 10.4 (SD: 4.3) 45 (35.7%) 2–4 Chest x-ray, identification of AFB in sputum samples by bronchoscopy or lavage of gastric secretions, conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nucleic acid amplification and/or histopathology, assessment of preceding clinical suspicion of TB
 Mahomed 2011 [13], South Africa
 High incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (5 mm) 5244 NR (range: 12–18) Yes: 4917 (93.8%); Unknown 281 (5.4%) 3.8 Two sputum samples for smear microscopy on two separate occasions. If any single sputum was smear positive, a mycobacterial culture, chest x-ray, and HIV test were performed
 Metin Timur 2014 [14], Turkey
 Intermediate incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (15 mm) 81 Mean: 7.9 (range: 0.5–16) 69 (85.2%) 3 TST and QFT-GIT test positive in a child who had symptoms of TB disease and/or abnormal findings on chest radiograph, CT or proven M. tuberculosis culture, PCR or histo- pathological examination
 Noorbakhsh 2011 [15], Iran
 Intermediate incidence
QFT-G vs. TST (10 mm) Not reported NR (<20) Not reported 1 Person diagnosed by an internist in the pulmonary and infectious ward of hospital.
 Song 2014 [16], South Korea
 High incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (10/15 mm) 2982 Mean: 15.1 (SD: 1.3) 1,818 (61.0%) 2 NR
 Elzi 2011 [12], Switzerland (PLWHIV)
 Low incidence
T-SPOT.TB vs. TST (5 mm) 64 Median: 33 (IQR: 31–42) NR 2 NR
 Kim 2011 [17], South Korea
 (Post kidney transplantation)
 High incidence
T-SPOT.TB vs. TST (5 mm) 272 NR (range: 40.4–46.0) 215 (79%) 1.17 (median) Symptoms/signs, sputum AFB smear, and a CT scan
 Kim 2015 [18], South Korea
 (Rheumatoid diseases)a
 High incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (5 mm) 282 Mean: 46.0 (SD: 15.4) NR 4 Medical records of clinical features, sputum or tissue acid-fast bacilli staining and radiological findings
 Lee 2009 [19], Taiwan
 (Haemodialysis in end-stage renal  disease (ESRD))
 High incidence
QFT-G vs. TST (10 mm)
T-SPOT.TB vs. TST (10 mm)
32 Mean: 53.8 (range: 34.4–77.7) 53 (82.8%) 2 Sputum TB smear, culture and chest radiography
 Lee 2014 [22], South Korea
 (Haematopoietic stem cell  transplantation recipients)
 High incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (10/15 mm) 169 Mean: 42.3 (SD: 13.8) 353 (90.7%) 1.3 (median) Chest x-ray, a sputum AFB smear and CT scan (pulmonary TB)
 Lee 2015 [23], South Korea
 (People with inflammatory arthritis)
 High incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (10 mm) 342 Median: 40 (IQR: 30–53) 236 (69.0%) 3.5 (median) Pulmonary TB was confirmed by sputum or bronchial washing culture
 Milman 2011 [20], Denmark
 (People with sarcoidosis)
 Low incidence
QFT-G vs. TST (10 mm) 41 Median: 39 (IQR: 25–39) 12 (27.3%) 5 Examinations of tissue specimens, Culture confirmed and polymerase chain reaction
 Moon 2013 [21], South Korea
 (Haematopoietic stem cell  transplantation candidates)
 High incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (5 mm) 244 Mean: 47 (range: 35–55) 201 (82%) 0.8 (median) NR
 Sester 2014 [24], Various European  healthcare facilities
 (PLWHIV, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, solid-organ transplant or stem-cell transplantation)
 Low incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (5 mm)
T-SPOT.TB vs. TST (5 mm)
1282 NR NR 5 Signs and symptoms of active TB. Culture confirmed and polymerase chain reaction
 Sherkat 2014 [25], Iran
 (Haemodialysis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD))
 Intermediate incidence
T-SPOT.TB vs. TST (10 mm) Not reported Mean: 44 (SD: 15.5) 12 (27.3%) 1.75 NR
Recent arrivals from countries with a high incidence of TB
 Harstad 2010 [26], Norway
 Low incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (6/15 mm) Not reported NR NR 2.67 NR
 Kik 2010 [27], The Netherlands
 Low incidence
QFT-GIT vs. TST (10/15 mm)
T-SPOT.TB vs. TST (10/15 mm)
339 NR 274 (80.8%) 2 Chest radiography, symptoms, smear and/or culture results
  1. NR not reported, AFB acid-fast bacilli, BCG bacille calmette-guérin, CT computed tomography, IQR interquartile range, N/A not applicable, PCR polymerase chain reaction, PLWHIV people living with human immunodeficiency virus, QFT-G quantiferon gold, QFT-GIT quantiferon gold-in-tube, SD standard deviation, TB tuberculosis, TST tuberculin skin test
  2. aOne unique study but three sub-groups received testing (TST alone, QFT-GIT alone and TST and QFT-GIT simultaneously)
  3. bLow incidence of TB- ≤ 20 cases per 100,000; intermediate incidence of TB- > 20 cases per 100,000 < 40 cases per 100,000; high incidence of TB- ≥40 cases per 100,000