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Table 3 Age-adjusted time trends in bloodstream infection (BSI) incidence stratified by sex. The table shows BSI rate ratios per calendar year by Poisson regression

From: Burden of bloodstream infection in an area of Mid-Norway 2002-2013: a prospective population-based observational study

  Females Males
  BSI rate ratio (95% CI) p-value BSI rate ratio (95% CI) p-value
BSI, allover 1.028 (1.010–1.047) 0.003 1.011(0.993–1.029) 0.22
Place of acquisition
 Community acquired 0.998 (0.973–1.024) 0.88 0.976 (0.950–1.004) 0.09
 Health care-associated 1.080 (1.047–1.114) <0.001 1.053 (1.024–1.083) <0.001
 Hospital acquired 1.009 (0.954–1.067) 0.76 0.999 (0.956–1.043) 0.96
Infection focus
 Urinary tract 1.056 (1.027–1.086) <0.001 1.041 (1.008–1.075) 0.013
 Lungs 1.021 (0.974–1.071) 0.39 0.969 (0.930–1.010) 0.14
 Biliary tract 1.017 (0.959–1.079) 0.57 0.993 (0.944–1.045) 0.80
 Gastrointestinal tract 1.017 (0.933–1.108) 0.70 1.052 (0.975–1.136) 0.19
 Skin or soft tissue 0.934 (0.868–1.005) 0.069 0.979 (0.920–1.042) 0.51
 Other 0.989 (0.935–1.045) 0.69 1.040 (0.991–1.091) 0.11
 Unknown 1.043 (0.981–1.109) 0.17 0.987 (0.935–1.041) 0.64
Microbe group
 Gram-negative BSI 1.043 (1.019–1.068) <0.001 1.020 (0.995–1.046) 0.12
 Gram-positive BSI 0.997 (0.966–1.030) 0.87 0.993 (0.968–1.020) 0.62
 Polymicrobial or fungal BSI 1.031 (0.936–1.135) 0.54 1.095 (1.007–1.190) 0.034
Microbes (the four most common)
Escherichia coli 1.044 (1.015–1.073) 0.003 1.002 (0.967–1.037) 0.92
Streptococcus pneumoniae 1.007 (0.954–1.063) 0.80 0.908 (0.860–0.958) <0.001
Staphylococcus aureus 0.988 (0.926–1.055) 0.73 1.032 (0.984–1.082) 0.20
Klebsiella spp. 1.136 (1.053–1.224) 0.001 1.094 (1.020–1.175) 0.012