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Table 2 Sporadic cases caused by hepatitis E virus in Africa. Proportion of sporadic hepatitis cases attributable to HEV varies by country and by subpopulation and studies were done under different conditions (e.g., sample size, demographics, and different diagnostic methods). Age of the sample is provided as mean (range or ± standard deviation, if available)

From: Erratum to: A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Africa

Country % sero-positivity Case demographics No. of cases Year of sampling Diagnostic methods Source
Chad 48.8 Acute or fulminant hepatitis patients, 4-64 yrs old 41 1993 IgM [36]
  20.0a Sporadic cases 17 1994 RT-PCRb [27]
Djibouti 58.5 Acute hepatitis patients, 21.8 yrs old (2-65) 65 1992-3 IgM [41]
Egypt 24.2 Jaundiced patients, 1-73 yrs old 202 1993 IgM [46]
  22.2 Jaundiced children, 5 yrs old (1-11) 261 1990 IgM [70]
  21.7 Acute hepatitis patients, 26.6 yrs old (18-60) 143 1993-4 IgM [71]
  20.2 Acute viral hepatitis patients, 8 yrs old 287 2006-8 IgM [62]
  17.9 Acute hepatitis patients, 15.7 (± 14.9) yrs old 235 2007-8 IgM or > = 3-fold rise in IgG [69]
  17.2 Children with elevated level (two-fold or more) of AST and ALT 64 2006d IgM [47]
  15.7 Acute hepatitis patients, 15.9 yrs old (1-65) 235 2007-8 IgM [63]
  15.1 Children with acute jaundice, 6.4 yrs old (1-13) 73 1987-8 IgM [45]
  12.5 Patients with acute hepatitis, 20.2 yrs old (4-65) 200 2001-2 IgM [64]
  6.0 Children with minor hepatic ailments, 6 mo-10 yrs 100 2004-5 IgM [65]
  5.0 Patients with acute on chronic liver failure, 46.4 yrs old 100 2009-10 IgM [66]
  2.1 Acute viral hepatitis patients, 25 yrs old (2-77) 47 2002-5 IgM [76]
  2.0 Hepatitis patients, 5.4 yrs old (1.5-15) 50 2007 RT-PCR [48]
Ethiopia 45.6 Acute viral hepatitis patients with NANB 79 1988-91 FABAd [43]
  31.8 Non-pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis, 30 yrs old 22 1988-91 FABA [6]
  67.9 Pregnant women with acute viral hepatitis, 26 yrs old 28 1988-91 FABA [6]
Mayotte 100.0 Patients with acute jaundice, 46 yrs old 1 2009 IgM [82]
Nigeria 70.0 Male patients with acute hepatitis, 25-33 yrs old 10 1997-8 RT-PCR [89]
Senegal 20.0 Patients with jaundice 30 1992c IgM [93]
  10.2 Patients with viral hepatitis 49 1993c IgM [92]
Somalia 61.1 Native Somalis and displaced Ethiopian patients with acute hepatitis, 7-90 yrs old 36 1992-3 IgM [96]
Sudan 5.4 Patients with fulminant hepatic failure, 38 yrs old (19-75) 37 2003-4 IgM [103]
  59.0 Children with acute clinical jaundice, ≤14 yrs old 39 1987-8 IgM [118]
  1. a20% was extrapolated from the results of RT-PCR of 5 samples out of total 17 cases
  2. bReverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
  3. cThe year of the publication
  4. dFABA; fluorescent antibody blocking assay, which is claimed to detect acute infection, not but past infection