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Table 1 Seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in Africa. Seroprevalence varies by country and by subpopulation and studies were done under different conditions (e.g., sample size, demographics, and different diagnostic methods). Age of the sample is provided as mean (range or ± standard deviation, if available)

From: Erratum to: A systematic review of the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Africa

Country % sero-prevalence Sample demographics Sample size Year of sampling Diagnostic methods Source
Burkina Faso 19.1 Blood donors 178 2010-12 IgG [29]
  11.6 Pregnant women 189 2010-12 IgG [29]
Burundi 14.0 Adults without chronic liver disease, 44.7 yrs old (±13.5) 129 1986 Total Ig [30]
Cameroon 14.2 HIV-infected adults, 38.1 yrs old (±11.3)and 289 2009-10 IgG [32]
  2.0 HIV-infected children, 8.3 yrs old (±7.5) 100 2009-10 IgG [32]
CARa 24.2 Patients attending the center for sexually transmitted diseases 157 1995b Total Ig [33]
Djibouti 13.0 Male peacekeepers in Haiti, 31.2 yrs old 112 1998b Total Ig [42]
Egypt 84.3 Pregnant women, 24 yrs old (16-48) 2,428 1997-2003 Total Ig [55]
  80.1 Patients with chronic liver disease, 48 yrs old (23-62) 518 2000-2 IgG [57]
  67.6 Residents of two rural villages, 24.5 and 26.5 yrs, respectively 10,156 1997 Total Ig [54]
  58.6 Asymptomatic pregnant women, ~33 yrs old 116 2009 IgG [58]
  56.4 Residents of a semi-urban village, 1-67 yrs old 140 1993 Total Ig [51]
  54.1 Four waste water treatment plant male workers, 20-60 yrs old 205 1998-9 IgG [116]
  51.2 Waste water treatment plant workers, 47.1 yrs old 43 2011b Total Ig [60]
  50.6 Waste water treatment plant workers, 20-60 yrs old 233 2000b Total Ig [61]
  45.3 Blood donors, 18-45 yrs old 95 1998b IgG [52]
  39.6 Haemodialysis patients, 8-20 yrs old 96 1998b IgG [52]
  38.9 Healthy females, 21.8 yrs old (16-25) 95 1995 IgG [50]
  17.2 Residents of a hamlet, 20.9 yrs old (<1-95) 1259 1992 IgG [49]
  0.0 Healthy controls, 20–60 yrs old 96 1998-9 IgG [116]
Gabon 14.2 Pregnant women, 24.6 yrs old (14-44) 840 2005, 2007 IgG [73]
  0.0 Villagers, 29 yrs old (2-80) 35 1991-2 Total Ig [72]
Ghana 45.3 Adult HIV patients, 40 yrs old (±9.6) 402 2008-10 IgG [32]
  38.1 Pig handlers, 36.5 yrs old (12-65) 105 2009b Total Ig [77]
  34.8 Pig handlers, 32.9 yrs old (15-70) 353 2008 Total Ig [75]
  28.7 Pregnant women, 28.9 yrs old (13-42) 157 2008 Total Ig [78]
  4.6 Blood donors 239 2012b IgG [76]
  4.4 6-18 yr olds 803 1993 Total Ig [74]
Madagascar 14.1 Slaughterhouse workers 427 2008-9 Total Ig [81]
Morocco 8.5 Blood donors 200 2000-1 IgG [85]
  2.2 men (n = 232) and women (n = 259), 27.7 yrs old (±5.9) 491 1995b IgG [84]
Nigeria 94.0 Control healthy adults (n = 44) 44 2008-9 Total Ig [90]
  43.0 Health care workers 88 2008-9 Total Ig [90]
  13.4 Healthy and sick people, 29.8 yrs old (3-72) 186 2007 Total Ig [91]
Sierra Leone 7.6 Primary school children, 6-12 yrs old 66 1998b IgG [139]
South Africa 10.7 Urban (n = 407) and rural (n = 360) blacks, 42 yrs old (18-85) 767 1996b Total Ig [98,117]
  2.6 Medical students 227 1992 Total Ig [97]
  1.8 Canoeists who have been regularly exposed to waste water 555 1992 Total Ig [97]
Tanzania 6.6 Women, 32.1 yrs old (15-45) 212 1996 Total Ig [114]
  0.2 Healthy adults, 30.3 yrs old 403 1992 Total Ig [112]
  0.0 Women 180 1995 Total Ig [113]
Tunisia 46.0 Healthy persons, > 60 yrs old 100 1991 IgG [106]
  29.5 Children with chronic haematological diseases 34 1996 IgG [106]
  28.9 Polytransfused patients; adults (n = 59, 34.8 yrs old [20-61]) and children (n = 48, 7.3 yrs old [1-15]) 107 2008-9 IgG [107]
  22.0 Healthy blood donors, < 40 yrs old 100 1996 IgG [106]
  12.1 Pregnant women, 30.1 yrs old (17-52) 404 2008-9 IgG [108]
  10.0 Healthy controls; blood donors (n = 100, 31.3 yrs old [20–58])
and children, (n = 60, 7.9 yrs old [1–15])
160 2008-9 IgG [107]
  5.4 Blood donors, 32.6 yrs old (± 8.6) 687 2007-8 Total Ig [109]
  4.3 Healthy persons, 20.7 yrs old (16-25) 1,505 2008b IgG [110]
Zambia 40.6c Urban adults, 18–64 yrs old 106 1999 IgG [115]
  16.0 Urban children, 1–15 yrs old 194 2011 IgG [115]
  1. aCAR; Central African Republic
  2. bThe year of the publication
  3. cThe original study reports 42%, but the actual figures indicate that 43 out of 106 specimens are positive; 43/106 = 0.4056