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Table 3 Scenario analyses and their impact on health gain, health system costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios per person screened, New Zealand dollars 2011

From: A screening program to test and treat for Helicobacter pylori infection: Cost-utility analysis by age, sex and ethnicity

  Incremental costs (NZ$) Incremental QALYs gained Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio
  Total Māori Non-Māori Total Māori Non-Māori Total Māori Non-Māori
Main modela $119 $138 $117 0.006 0.014 0.005 $20,600 $10,100 $24,700
Equity analysis—equal life expectancy and background morbidity for Māori and non-Māori $121 $155 $117 0.006 0.019 0.005 $18,800 $8,200 $24,700
Equal coverage—coverage in Māori was set to the same as non-Māori (84%) $120 $143 $117 0.006 0.014 0.005 $20,400 $10,000 $24,700
Low coverage—coverage in Māori of 45% and non-Māori of 58% akin to a NZ colorectal screening pilot $93 $95 $93 0.004 0.008 0.003 $24,500 $12,400 $28,400
Equal eradication—triple therapy was increased to be 95% effective (e.g. levofloxacin) $118 $132 $116 0.006 0.015 0.005 $19,600 $8,900 $24,200
No retest to ensure effective eradication $101 $107 $100 0.005 0.010 0.004 $20,600 $10,900 $23,600
Follow-up for 15 years (rather than over a lifetime) $118 $132 $116 0.003 0.008 0.003 $35,600 $16,000 $44,000
The effect size in the youngest age groups is greater (<40yo, RR of 0.50) $119 $139 $117 0.006 0.016 0.005 $18,400 $8,700 $22,500
The complication rate for CDI was increased from 80 to 800 per 100,000 $124 $146 $121 0.006 0.014 0.005 $21,400 $10,700 $25,600
6% discounting QALYs and costs $112 $118 $111 0.003 0.007 0.002 $39,200 $17,300 $48,200
0% discounting QALYs and costs $151 $225 $141 0.015 0.034 0.012 $10,300 $6,600 $11,700
No unrelated health system costs $82 $52 $86 0.006 0.014 0.005 $14,200 $3,800 $18,300
No pYLDs (background morbidity) $119 $138 $117 0.008 0.021 0.007 $14,300 $6,700 $17,500
  1. Deterministic results were used in the sensitivity analysis for efficiency and differ slightly from probabilistic results
  2. aMain model includes 3% discounting of both QALYs and costs