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Table 5 Univariable and multivariable analyses of risk factors for mortalitya

From: High mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment in Nigeria: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Crude HR (95% CI) P value Adjusted HR (95% CI) p value
Age group (years)
 15–24 1   1  
 25–34 1 · 62 (1 · 01–2 · 58)   1 · 18 (0 · 73–1 · 89)  
 35–44 1 · 57 (0 · 97–2 · 53)   1 · 07 (0 · 65–1 · 77)  
 45–54 3 · 79 (2 · 37–6 · 07)   2 · 37 (1 · 44–3 · 92)  
 55–64 1 · 85 (0 · 96–3 · 57)   1 · 43 (0 · 73–2 · 80)  
  > 65 3 · 60 (2 · 03–6 · 38) <0 · 001 1 · 64 (0 · 90–2 · 99) 0.001
Gender
 Female 1 0 · 06 1  
 Male 1 · 28 (0 · 99–1 · 67)   0 · 94 (0 · 71–1 · 25) 0 · 68
Residence
 Within Kano 1   1  
 Outside Kano 6. · 74 (5 · 13–8 · 86) <0 · 001 3 · 18 (2 · 28–4 · 45) <0 · 001
Referral facility
 DOTS-linked facility 1   1  
 Non DOTS-linked facility 5 · 85 (4 · 07–8 · 42) <0 · 001 3 · 02 (2 · 01–4 · 53) <0 · 001
TB diagnosis
 Bacteriological 1   1  
 Clinical 10 · 72 (6 · 12–18 · 76) <0 · 001 4 · 96 (2 · 69–9 · 17) <0 · 001
TB site
 Pulmonary 1   1  
 Extra-pulmonary 1 · 46 (1 · 00–2 · 14)   1 · 08 (0 · 72–1 · 63)  
 Both 4 · 86 (3 · 68–6 · 42) <0 · 001 1 · 45 (1 · 03–2 · 02) 0 · 09
HIV/ART status
 HIV- 1   1  
 HIV+ on ART 0 · 43 (0 · 21–0 · 92)   1 · 51 (0 · 60–3 · 78)  
 HIV+ not on ART 1 · 42 (1 · 09–1 · 86)   1 · 39 (1 · 04–1 · 85)  
 Unknown HIV status 0 · 54 (0 · 32–0 · 93) <0 · 001 0 · 77 (0 · 44–1 · 33) 0 · 05
Previous TB treatment
 No 1   1  
 Yes 6 · 43 (4 · 95–8 · 35) <0 · 001 3 · 48 (2 · 54–4 · 77) <0 · 001
Year of diagnosis
 2010–2011 1   1  
 2012 1 · 17 (0 · 86–1 · 60)   1 · 10 (0 · 78–1 · 56)  
 2013 0 · 48 (0 · 36–0 · 68)   0 · 47 (0 · 32–0 · 69)  
 2014 0 · 45 (0 · 29–0 · 70) <0 · 001 0 · 45 (0 · 27–0 · 74) <0 · 001
  1. aAdjusted for all variables in the table