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Table 3 Characteristics of the study participants*

From: Prevalence and clinical presentation of Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella and chikungunya virus infections among hospital-based febrile patients from December 2008 to November 2009 in Bangladesh

  Rickettsia† (N = 263) Coxiella burnetii (N = 10) Leptospira (N = 2) Chikungunya (N = 10) Bartonella (N = 1)
Typhus group Rickettsia (N = 10) Spotted fever group Rickettsia (N = 132) Scrub typhus group Rickettsia (N = 170)
Median (interquartile range) 14(5,30) 18(14,35) 17.5 (7,30) 30(12,45) 21.5(14,36) 24.5(7,42) 14(10,35) 9
Age category
 0-10 years (318) 2 (1) 50 (16) 39 (12) 2 (1) 1 (0.3) 3 (1) 1 (0.3)
 11-20 years (121) 4 (3) 24 (20) 24 (20) 3 (2) 0 3 (2) 0
 21-30 years (117) 1 (1) 26 (22) 28 (24) 1 (1) 0 0 0
 31-40 years (62) 2 (3) 17 (27) 30 (48) 2 (3) 0 4 (6) 0
  > 40 years (102) 1 (1) 15 (15) 49 (48) 2 (2) 1 (1) 0 0
Below 5 years (176) 1 (1) 28 (16) 13 (7) 1 (1) 0 1 (1) 0
Below 18 years (392) 4 (1) 66 (17) 55 (14) 4 (1) 1 (0.3) 6 (2) 1 (0.3)
Male (452) 7 (2) 76 (17) 90 (20) 6 (1) 2 (0.4) 4 (1) 1 (0.2)
Inpatient medicine (232) 5 (2) 29 (13) 72 (31) 7 (3) 1 (0.4) 3 (1) 0
Inpatient paediatrics (230) 1 (0.4) 32 (14) 34 (15) 2 (1) 1 (0.4) 4 (2) 0
Wealth index‡ [N = 557]§ (N = 5) (N = 94) (N = 130) (N = 8) (N = 1) (N = 6) (N = 1)
Lowest (110) 1 (1) 18 (16) 32 (29) 2 (2) 0 0 0
Second (110) 0 22 (20) 37 (34) 2 (2) 1 (1) 3 (3) 0
Middle (106) 0 17 (16) 18 (17) 2 (2) 0 2 (2) 1 (1)
Fourth (114) 1 (1) 18 (16) 24 (21) 2 (2) 0 0 0
Highest (117) 3 (3) 19 (16) 19 (16) 0 0 1 (1) 0
  1. * Values are n (%) unless otherwise indicated; Mean is reported along with ± Standard deviation
  2. Rickettsia test results categorized as positive cases who had IFAT titer of more than 64 or scrub typhus ELISA positive. Rickettsial species included typhus group, spotted fever group and scrub typhus group. In total, 312 rickettsial infections (typhus group [n = 10], spotted fever group [n = 132] and scrub typhus group [n = 170]) identified in 263 patients
  3. ‡ Quintile 1 to 5 of wealth index is based on principle component analysis on the owned 10 assets of the households, sanitation facilities, drinking water sources, cooking fuels and household construction
  4. § We could follow up in total 557 out of 720 febrile patients; 5 out of 10 typhus group, 94 out of 132 spotted fever group, 130 out of 170 scrub typhus group, 8 out of 10 Coxiella burnetii cases, 1 out of 2 leptospirosis, 6 out of 10 Chikungunya and one bartonellosis patients