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Table 5 Predictors of mild to severe ICS score among children with viral bronchiolitis: logistic regression analysis

From: Viral aetiology of bronchiolitis in hospitalised children in Qatar

  ICS score: 1 to 2 (mild) ICS score: 3 to 4 (moderate to severe) Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI) P-Value
Demographic characteristics
 Age group
   ≤ 1 month 70 (44.0%) 68 (38.4%) 0.84 (0.49, 1.45) 0.535
  1 to 3 months 50 (31.4%) 64 (36.2%) 1.11 (0.63, 1.95) 0.720
   > 3 months 39 (24.5%) 45 (25.4%) 1.0 (Reference)  
  Male 101 (62.7%) 131 (70.8%) 1.44 (0.92, 2.26) 0.111
  Female 60 (37.3%) 54 (29.2%) 1.0 (Reference)  
  Qatari 97 (60.2%) 123 (66.5%) 1.31 (0.84, 2.03) 0.229
  Non-Qatari 64 (39.8%) 62 (33.5%) 1.0 (Reference)  
Types of viruses, seasonal trend and severity
 RSV 53 (40.2%) 72 (42.4%) 1.0 (Reference)  
 RV 12 (9.1%) 23 (13.5%) 1.41 (0.65, 3.09) 0.389
 RSV + RV 10 (7.6%) 14 (8.2%) 1.03 (0.42, 2.50) 0.947
 RSV+ any other non-RV 13 (9.8%) 17 (10%) 0.96 (0.43, 2.15) 0.926
 RV+ any other non-RSV 12 (9.1%) 10 (5.9%) 0.61 (0.25, 1.53) 0.293
 Others 32 (24.2%) 34 (20%) 0.78 (0.43, 1.42) 0.421
Seasons
 Winter 62 (38.5%) 88 (47.8%) 1.0 (Reference)  
 Spring 23 (14.3%) 19 (10.3%) 0.58 (0.29, 1.16) 0.124
 Summer 6 (3.7%) 13 (7.1%) 1.53 (0.55, 4.24) 0.417
 Fall 70 (43.5%) 64 (34.8%) 0.64 (0.40, 1.03) 0.066
 LOS ≥ 4 daysa 125 (78.1%) 156 (85.2%) 1.62 (0.93, 2.82) 0.089
 Assisted Ventilationa 4 (2.6%) 24 (13.4%) 5.85 (1.98, 17.3) 0.001
Medical history and physical exam findings
 Cough 158 (98.8%) 181 (98.4%) 0.76 (0.13, 4.63) 0.769
 Wheezing 95 (60.1%) 132 (73.3%) 1.82 (1.15, 2.89) 0.010
 Crepitation 109 (75.7%) 155 (90.6%) 3.11 (1.64, 5.90) 0.001
 Retraction 87 (60.8%) 158 (89.8%) 5.65 (3.13, 10.2) <0.001
 Fever 118 (75.6%) 135 (76.3%) 1.03 (0.63, 1.71) 0.893
 Apnea 13 (9.3%) 9 (5.6%) 0.58 (0.24, 1.40) 0.224
 Pertussis like symptoms 12 (9.2%) 16 (10.1%) 1.12 (0.51, 2.46) 0.782
 Family history of asthma 59 (52.7%) 81 (58.3%) 1.26 (0.76, 2.07) 0.375
 Maximum temperature (°C) 38.44 ± 0.82 38.56 ± 0.79 1.20 (0.92, 1.56) 0.156
 Maximum respiratory rate (br/m) 57.98 ± 17.17 66.37 ± 7.83 1.09 (1.07, 1.12) <0.001
 Maximum pulse rate (beat/m) 163.2 ± 19.9 171.9 ± 17.7 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) <0.001
 O2 saturation (%) 96.91 ± 2.01 96.02 ± 2.64 0.85 (0.77, 0.93) 0.001
  1. LOS Length of stay in hospital, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, ICS Initial clinical severity score. aReference category: LOS <4 days; not assisted ventilation. Dichotomous outcome ICS score value 1 to 2 was taken as reference group