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Table 3 Univariate analysis of socio-demography, alcohol drinking, smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and body composition as predictors for pre-diabetes and diabetes at 2 to 3 years post-ART

From: Dysglycemia associations with adipose tissue among HIV-infected patients after 2 years of antiretroviral therapy in Mwanza: a follow-up cross-sectional study

  PD/DM+a (n = 61) PD/DM-b (n = 212) Odds Ratio (95% CI) P-value
n(%) or mean (sd) n(%) or mean (sd)   
Age at follow-up, years 41.8 (7.9) 41.4 (10.3) 1.00 (0.9–1.0) 0.76
Sex
 Male 24 (39.3) 71 (33.5) Reference 0.40
 Female 37 (60.7) 141 (66.5) 0.78 (0.4, 1.4)  
Marital status
 Married/cohabiting 26 (42.6) 104 (49.1) Reference 0.59
 Widow/widower 9 (14.7) 36 (16.9) 1.00 (0.4, 2.3)  
 Separated/divorced 22 (36.1) 57 (26.9) 1.54 (0.8, 2.9)  
 Single 4 (6.6) 15 (7.1) 1.07 (0.3, 3.5)  
Occupation
 Self-employed 51 (83.6) 181 (85.4) Reference 0.41
 Salaried 3 (5.0) 12 (5.7) 0.89 (0.2, 3.2)  
 Housewife 1 (1.6) 9 (4.2) 0.39 (0.05,3.2)  
 No employment/other 6 (9.8) 10 (4.7) 2.13 (0.7, 6.1)  
Highest education level
 Never attended school 18 (29.5) 60 (28.3) Reference 0.96
 Primary 40 (65.6) 139 (65.5) 0.95 (0.5, 1.8)  
 Secondary 3 (4.9) 12 (5.7) 0.83 (0.2, 3.2)  
 Vocational college/Tertiary 0 (0) 1 (0.5)  
Social economic status
 Lowest 15 (24.6) 43 (20.3) Reference 0.03
 Low 22 (36.0) 42 (19.8) 1.50 (0.6, 3.3)  
 Middle 10 (16.4) 43 (20.3) 0.67 (0.3, 1.6)  
 High 4 (6.6) 44 (20.7) 0.26 (0.1, 0.8)  
 Highest 10 (16.4) 40 (18.9) 0.71 (0.3, 1.8)  
Alcohol drinking
 Never 31 (51.7) 77 (36.3) Reference 0.06
 Past 26 (43.3) 107 (50.5) 0.60 (0.3, 1.1)  
 Current 3 (5.0) 28 (13.2) 0.27 (0.1, 0.9)  
Smoking status
 Never 45 (73.8) 152 (71.7) Reference 0.92
 Past 14 (22.9) 51 (24.1) 0.93 (0.5, 1.8)  
 Current 2 (3.3) 9 (4.2) 0.75 (0.2, 3.6)  
Fruits and vegetables intake per day
 1–2 servings 26 (42.6) 55 (25.9) Reference 0.04
 3–4 servings 15 (24.6) 64 (30.2) 0.49 (0.2, 1.0)  
  ≥ 5 servings 20 (32.8) 93 (43.9) 0.45 (0.2, 0.9)  
Time spent in vigorous physical activity per week (minutes)
 Inadequate (<75 min) 13 (21.3) 51 (24.1) Reference 0.66
 Adequate (≥75 min) 48 (78.7) 161 (75.9) 1.17 (0.6, 2.3)  
Months on ARTc 30 (4.5) 31 (5.2) 0.98 (09, 1.0) 0.57
Current ART regimen
 AZT + 3TC + EFV 9 (15.3) 32 (15.9) Reference 0.92
 AZT + 3TC + NVP 20 (33.9) 64 (31.8) 1.11 (0.5, 2.7)  
 TDF + FTC + EFV 14 (23.7) 56 (27.9) 0.89 (0.3, 2.3)  
 TDF + 3TC + EFV 16 (27.1) 49 (24.4) 1.16 (0.5, 2.9)  
TB treatment at baseline
 Did not receive TB treatment 52 (85.3) 158 (74.5) Reference 0.08
 Received TB treatment 9 (14.7) 54 (25.5) 0.50 (0.2, 1.1)  
TB treatment since baseline
 Did not receive TB treatment 50 (82.0) 146 (68.9) Reference 0.048
 Received TB treatment 11 (18.0) 66 (31.1) 0.48 (0.2, 0.9)  
Baseline CD4 count (cells/μL) 127 (104) 127 (98) 0.99 (0.9, 1.0) 0.99
Baseline CRP (Log -transformed)d 3.7 (1.7) 3.7 (1.8) 0.99 (0.8, 1.2) 0.91
Follow-up CRP (Log -transformed) 1.8 (1.6) 1.5 (1.4) 1.16 (0.9, 1.4) 0.14
NUSTART intervention assignment
 Control arm 30 (49.2) 98 (46.2) Reference 0.68
 Treatment arm 31 (50.8) 114 (53.8) 0.89 (0.5, 1.6)  
Baseline anthropometrics and body composition
 Waist circumference tertiles     
  Lower 13 (21.3) 51 (24.1) Reference 0.18
  Middle 27 (44.3) 67 (31.6) 1.58 (0.7, 3.4)  
  Upper 21 (34.4) 94 (44.3) 0.87 (0.4, 1.9)  
Hip circumference tertiles
 Lower 23 (37.7) 45 (21.2) References 0.03
 Middle 18 (29.5) 68 (32.1) 0.52 (0.3, 1.1)  
 Upper 20 (32.8) 99 (46.7) 0.39 (0.2, 0.8)  
Body mass index tertiles
 Lower 16 (26.2) 50 (23.6) Reference 0.78
 Middle 21 (34.5) 68 (32.1) 0.96 (0.5, 2.0)  
 Upper 24 (39.3) 94 (44.3) 0.79 (0.4, 1.6)  
Fat mass index tertilese
 Lower 23 (41.8) 41 (21.2) Reference 0.007
 Middle 17 (30.9) 66 (34.2) 0.46 (0.2, 0.9)  
 Upper 15 (27.3) 86 (44.6) 0.31 (0.1, 0.7)  
Fat-free mass index tertilese
 Lower 18 (32.7) 64 (33.2) Reference 0.67
 Middle 17 (30.9) 70 (36.2) 0.86 (0.4,1.8)  
 Upper 20 (36.4) 59 (30.6) 1.21 (0.6, 2.5)  
Follow-up anthropometrics and body composition
 Waist circumference tertiles
  Lower 32 (52.5) 61 (28.8) Reference 0.0008
  Middle 20 (32.8) 71 (33.5) 0.53 (0.3, 1.0)  
  Upper 9 (14.7) 80 (37.7) 0.21 (0.1, 05)  
Hip circumference tertiles
 Lower 30 (49.2) 62 (29.3) Reference 0.007
 Middle 20 (32.8) 73 (34.4) 0.56 (0.3, 1.1)  
 Upper 11 (18.0) 77 (36.3) 0.29 (0.1, 0.6)  
Body mass index tertiles
 Lower 30 (49.2) 61 (28.8) Reference 0.009
 Middle 18 (29.5) 73 (34.4) 0.50 (0.3, 0.9)  
 Upper 13 (21.3) 78 (36.8) 0.34 (0.2, 0.7)  
Fat mass index tertilesf
 Lower 33 (55.0) 57 (27.3) Reference 0.0003
 Middle 17 (28.3) 73 (34.9) 0.40 (0.2, 0.8)  
 Upper 10 (16.7) 79 (38.7) 0.21 (0.1, 0.5)  
Fat-free mass index tertilesf
 Lower 26 (43.3) 64 (30.6) Reference  
 Middle 13 (21.7) 77 (36.8) 0.41 (0.2, 0.9) 0.07
 Upper 21 (35.0) 68 (32.6) 0.76 (0.4, 1.5)  
  1. ART antiretroviral therapy, AZT, Zidovudine, 3TC Lamivudine, EFV Efavirenz, NVP, Nevirapine, TDF Tenofovir, FTC Emtricitabine
  2. aPatients with Pre-diabetes and diabetes
  3. bPatients without pre-diabetes and diabetes
  4. cPD/DM+ patients were 58 and PD/DM- patients were 194
  5. dPD/DM+ patients were 53 and PD/DM- patients were 193
  6. ePD/DM+ patients were 53 and PD/DM- patients were 193
  7. fPD/DM+ patients were 60 and PD/DM- patients were 209