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Table 2 Plasma cytokine and chemokine concentrations in HIV-infected and uninfected patients with syphilis by syphilis stage (pg/ml)

From: The immunological response to syphilis differs by HIV status; a prospective observational cohort study

  HIV-infected Controls HIV-infected HIV-uninfected  
  Primary/Secondary Syphilis# Latent Syphilis# Primary/Secondary Syphilis# PSS HIV+ vs. -, P$
Baseline
 N 30 44 35 10  
Pro-inflammatory
 IFNα 9.88 (1.6–16.43) 7.45 (0.8–31.35) 7.45 (0.8–20.42) 4.12 (0.8–24.73) 0.5202
 IL1β 1.57 (1.57–1.57) 1.57 (1.57–1.57) 1.57 (1.57–1.57) 1.57 (1.57–1.57) 0.4883
 IL-6 1.26 (1.26–1.26) 1.26 (1.26–1.26)* 1.26 (1.26–1.26) 1.26 (1.26–1.26) 0.722
 IL-17A 1.52 (1.52–1.52) 1.52 (1.52–1.52) 1.52 (1.52–1.52) 1.52 (1.52–1.52) 0.8358
Th1
 IFNγ 2.18 (1.54–4.59) 3.52 (1.54–5.45) 1.79 (1.54–4.59) 4.01 (1.54–16.66) 0.5991
 IL-7 1.11 (1.11–1.11) 1.11 (1.11–1.36) 1.11 (1.11–1.11) 1.11 (1.11–1.11) 0.357
 IL-12p40 1.02 (1.02–1.02) 1.02 (1.02–1.02) 1.02 (1.02–1.02) 1.02 (1.02–1.02) 0.4056
 IL-12p70 1.61 (1.61–1.61) 1.61 (1.61–1.67) 1.61 (1.61–1.61) 1.61 (1.61–4.08) 0.6264
Chemokines
 IL-8 1.6 (1.6–5.06) 4.51 (2.41–7.43)** 1.6 (1.6–3.15) 1.6 (1.6–5.13) 0.0723
 IP-10 589.4 (319.38–917.05) 1016.1 (649.64–1451.32)** 696.89 (455.35–1101.67) 696.52 (426.27–1040.07) 0.1561
 MCP-1 258.42 (179.09–307.75) 260.1 (216.95–307.35) 242.05 (180.35–303.1) 247.64 (205.76–287.32) 0.4321
 MIP-1α 1.63 (1.63–3.65) 3.09 (1.63–8.3) 1.63 (1.63–1.63) 1.63 (1.63–1.63) 0.1247
 MIP-1β 14.54 (0.99–22.23) 28.59 (16.06–42.51)** 15.2 (4.92–22.23) 8.46 (4.92–23.05) 0.0205
Th2
 IL-4 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 0.4883
 IL-5 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 0.3324
Anti-inflammatory
 IL-10 1.55 (1.55–1.55) 25.3 (4.56–41.76)*** 2.46 (1.55–4.62)* 2.73 (1.55–9.02)* 0.0029
6 month
 N   41 34 10  
Pro-inflammatory
 IFNα   0.8 (0.8–9.27)**# 0.8 (0.8–7.8)**# 0.8 (0.8–0.8)*# 0.3282
 IL-1β   1.57 (1.57–1.57) 1.57 (1.57–1.57) 1.57 (1.57–1.57) 0.1798
 IL-6   1.26 (1.26–1.26) 1.26 (1.26–1.26) 1.26 (1.26–1.26) 0.7379
 IL-17A   1.52 (1.52–1.52) 1.52 (1.52–1.52) 1.52 (1.52–1.52) 0.7379
Th1
 IFNγ   1.54 (1.54–5.09) 1.62 (1.54–4.88) 5.17 (1.54–13.89) 0.0978
 IL-7   1.11 (1.11–1.11) 1.11 (1.11–1.11) 1.11 (1.11–1.11) 0.6486
 IL-12p40   1.02 (1.02–1.02) 1.02 (1.02–1.02) 1.02 (1.02–1.02) 0.2068
 IL-12p70   1.61 (1.61–1.61) 1.61 (1.61–1.86) 1.61 (1.61–1.61) 0.7639
Chemokines
 IL-8   1.87 (1.6–4.02) 1.6 (1.6–1.7) 1.66 (1.6–3.75) 0.4406
 IP-10   564.56 (392.18–740.03) 592.04 (447.8–831.96) 447 (309–593) 0.2134
 MCP-1   270.25 (225.5–330.3) 261.32 (241.06–312.26) 269 (219–297) 0.8287
 MIP-1α   1.63 (1.63–1.63) 1.63 (1.63–1.63) 1.63 (1.63–1.63) 0.6726
 MIP-1β   7.4 (0.99–20.28) 9.17 (1.99–14) 2.39 (0.99–12.05) 0.249
Th2
 IL-4   1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 0.1798
 IL-5   1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 1.58 (1.58–1.58) 0.3621
Anti-inflammatory
 IL-10   1.83 (1.83–4.09)*** 2.11 (1.83–3.37)*** 2.26 (1.83–4.46)** 0.6296
  1. All values are median and interquartile range. Data are n (%), median (IQR), unless otherwise stated
  2. # P-value is for comparison with controls at baseline (Mann-Whitney U-test)
  3. $ P-value is for comparison between HIV-infected and uninfected groups with Primary/Secondary syphilis (Mann-Whitney U-test)
  4. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0005
  5. PSS - Primary/Secondary Syphilis