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Table 3 Univariable Analyses of Risk Factors for High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in a Sample of Nepali and Bhutanese Women Living in Eastern Nepal

From: High-risk human papillomavirus infection and abnormal cervical cytology among Nepali and Bhutanese refugee women living in eastern Nepal

Risk Factor High-risk HPV Cervical CytologyƗ
n (%)    n (%)   
Total Positive Negative OR (95% CI)§ p- value Total Abnormal Normal OR (95% Cl)§ p- value
Nationality
 Nepali 542 (84.6) 46 (8.5) 496 (91.5) 1.00   494 (14.2) 36 (7.3) 458 (92.7) 1.00  
 Bhutanese 99 (15.4) 11 (11.1) 88 (88.9) 1.35 (0.67–2.70) 0.4000 82 (85.8) 5 (6.1) 77 (93.9) 0.83 (0.31–2.17) 0.6984
 Total 641 (100.0) 57 (8.9) 584 (91.1)    576 (100.0) 41 (7.1) 535 (92.9)   
Age, years
 45–69 175 (27.4) 9 (5.1) 166 (94.9) 1.00   151 (26.3) 10 (6.6) 141 (93.4) 1.00  
 19–44 464 (72.6) 48 (10.3) 416 (89.7) 2.13 (1.02–4.44) 0.0438 423 (73.7) 31 (7.3) 392 (92.7) 1.12 (0.53–2.33) 0.7725
 Total 639 (100.0) 57 (8.9) 582 (91.1)    574 (100.0) 41 (7.1) 533 (92.9)   
Formal education
 None 185 (28.9) 15 (8.1) 170 (91.9) 1.00   162 (28.1) 9 (5.6) 153 (94.4) 1.00  
 Some 456 (71.1) 42 (9.2) 414 (90.8) 1.15 (0.62–2.13) 0.6570 414 (71.9) 32 (7.7) 382 (92.3) 1.42 (0.66–3.05) 0.3642
 Total 641 (100.0) 57 (8.9) 584 (91.1)    576 (100.0) 41 (7.1) 535 (92.9)   
Current marital Status
 Other* 15 (2.5) 0 (0.0) 15 (100.0)    13 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 13 (100.0)   
 Married 595 (97.5) 54 (9.1) 541 (88.7) **   535 (100.0) 41 (7.7) 494 (92.3) **  
 Total 610 (100.0) 54 (9.1) 556 (90.9)    548 (100.0) 41 (7.5) 507 (92.5)   
Previously married
 No 603 (97.7) 54 (9.0) 549 (91.0)    540 (97.6) 39 (7.2) 501 (92.8)   
 Yes 14 (2.3) 1 (7.1) 13 (92.9) ***   13 (2.4) 1 (7.7) 12 (92.3) ***  
 Total 617 (100.0) 55 (8.9) 562 (91.1)    553 (100.0) 40 (7.2) 513 (92.8)   
Husband previously married
 No 550 (89.1) 49 (8.9) 501 (91.1) 1.00   490 (88.9) 36 (7.3) 454 (92.7) 1.00  
 Yes 67 (10.9) 6 (9.0) 61 (91.0) 1.01 (0.41–2.45) 0.9900 61 (11.1) 4 (6.6) 57 (93.4) 1.13 (0.39–3.29) 0.8228
 Total 617 (100.0) 55 (8.9) 562 (91.1)    551 (100.0) 40 (7.3) 511 (92.7)   
Number of children
 ≤ 1 130 (20.9) 13 (10.0) 117 (90.0) 1.00   119 (21.2) 14 (11.8) 105 (88.2) 1.00 -
 2 242 (38.8) 22 (9.1) 220 (90.9) 0.90 (0.44–1.85) 0.7746 219 (39.1) 13 (5.9) 206 (94.1) 0.47 (0.22–1.04) 0.0637
 3 154 (24.7) 11 (7.1) 143 (92.9) 0.69 (0.30–1.60) 0.3907 137 (24.5) 8 (5.8) 129 (94.2) 0.47 (0.19–1.15) 0.0977
 ≥ 4 97 (15.6) 9 (9.3) 88 (90.7) 0.92 (0.38–2.25) 0.8557 85 (15.2) 6 (7.1) 79 (92.9) 0.57 (0.21–1.55) 0.2700
 Total 623 (100.0) 55 (8.8) 568 (91.2)    560 (100.0) 41 (7.3) 519 (92.7)   
Drink alcohol
 No 573 (91.4) 49 (8.6) 524 (91.4) 1.00 - 515 (91.5) 34 (6.6) 481 (93.4) 1.00  
 Yes 54 (8.6) 6 (11.1) 48 (88.9 1.34 (0.55–3.28) 0.5258 48 (8.5) 6 (12.5) 42 (87.5) 2.02 (0.80–5.09) 0.1353
 Total 627 (100.0) 55 (8.8) 572 (91.2)    563 (100.0) 40 (7.6) 523 (92.4)   
Currently smoke
 No 550 (90.8) 50 (9.1) 500 (90.7)    517 (90.8) 38 (7.4) 479 (92.7)   
 Yes 56 (9.2) 2 (3.6) 54 (96.4) ***   47 (9.2) 3 (6.4) 44 (93.6) ***  
 Total 606 (100.0) 52 (8.6) 554 (91.4)    564 (100.0) 41 (7.3) 523 (92.7)   
Husband migrated for work
 No 393 (74.6) 30 (7.6) 363 (92.4) 1.00   354 (74.2) 17 (4.8) 337 (95.2) 1.00  
 Outside the district 23 (4.4) 5 (21.7) 18 (78.3) 3.36 (1.17–9.69) 0.0248 19 (4.0) 1 (5.3) 18 (87.5) ***  
 Outside the country 111 (21.0) 10 (9.0) 101 (91.0) 1.20 (0.57–2.53) 0.6363 104 (21.8) 13 (12.5) 91 (94.7) 2.83 (1.33–6.05) 0.0073
 Total 527 (100.0) 45 (8.5) 582 (91.5)    477 (100.0) 31 (6.5) 446 (93.5)   
  1. ƗCervical cytology classification: “Normal” includes: benign cellular changes, WNL results Within Normal Limits, ASCUS Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance, or actinomycosis; “Abnormal” includes: ASC-H Atypical Squamous Cells- cannot exclude High-grade, LSIL Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, HSIL High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion, AGUS Atypical Glandular Cells of Undetermined Significance; and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (none in this sample)
  2. §OR (95% CI) = Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
  3. *Other included single, divorced/separated, and widowed women
  4. **OR undefined
  5. ***Too few data to estimate an OR