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Table 2 Percentages of resistance of gram-negative uropathogens against commonly used antibiotics per administered antibiotic prophylaxis

From: The influence of antibiotic prophylaxis on bacterial resistance in urinary tract infections in children with spina bifida

  No prophylaxis Nitrofurantoin prophylaxis Trimetoprim prophylaxis Nitrofurantoin and trimetoprim prophylaxis Ciprofloxacin prophylaxis
Number of gram-negative cultures 228 166 131 84 15
Antibiotic tested % resistant     
Amoxicillin 57.0 57.3 71.3* 79.0** 55.6
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 23.2 21.5 26.7 40.9** 46.2
Piperacillin 56.6 38.6* 62.5 70.4 41.7
Piperacillin/tazobactam 5.6 4.9 3.4 23.3*** 8.3
Cefazolin 17.3 14.0 14.9 29.0 66.7**
Cefuroxim 9.0 21.5** 5.2 14.3 70.0***
Ceftazidim 3.4 12.9* 1.7 5.5 9.1
Ceftriaxon 1.4 7.9* 0.0 3.1 10.0
Meropenem 0.0 2.4 1.6 1.2 8.3
Amikacin 0.6 9.5** 0.8 2.5 0.0
Gentamicin 3.2 4.4 2.6 6.3 0.0
Tobramycin 3.1 6.0 1.6 8.6* 0.0
Ciprofloxacin 3.8 7.2 12.0 2.5 58.3***
Norfloxacin 5.1 8.9 11.6 3.8 63.6***
Levofloxacin 5.9 10.2 11.8 2.5 53.8***
Trimetoprim 38.5 38.7 90.5*** 83.3*** 55.6
Co-trimoxazol 32.1 30.9 79.1*** 71.8*** 38.5
Nitrofurantoin 13.2 56.1*** 11.6 14.3 77.8***
  1. Legend: GLMM used to compare risk of resistance relative to no prophylaxis used, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001